Eitzen - Ch 2 Notes.docx

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Chuck O' Connell

Ch 2 - Structure of Social Groups Social organization - the order of a social group as evidenced by the positions, roles, norms and other constraints that control behavior and ensure predictability Social conditions constraining behaviour: Social structure - The patterned and recurrent relationships among people and parts in a social organization Culture - shared beliefs of group members that unite them and guide their behaviour Social Structure Aggregate - collection of individuals that happen to be at the same place at same time Group - collection of people who because of sustained interaction have evolved a common structure and culture Social interaction - when individuals act toward or respond to each other Humans always concerned about how people will react to them. Actions oriented toward ppl Social relationship - occurs when two or more people engage in enduring social interaction Unified in at least some minimal way with the other members Behave differently from the way they would in a fleeting interaction Become part of a new entity different from their individual selves Groups may have different purposes but are similar in structure and processes that create that structure Division of labour, hierarchy of positions Social interaction thru social media Technology leads to Cultural shift Social connectivity does not mean intimate friendship. Facebook has made our generation more accustomed to openness As a result, relationships more easily formed and abandoned. Our bonds are weak People these days have fewer confidants. Culture Values -criteria for judging what is appropriate/correct/morals Social roles - the expectation of what individuals should do in various statuses Norms -cultural rules that specify appropriate / inappropriate behaviour Folkways - not severely punished if violated. ex: etiquette Mores - violation results in severe punishment Status and Role Status - a socially defined position in a social organization Individual’s social identity is product of particular matrix of statuses that (s)he occupies Dat fake math. Hierarchy - arrangement of people in order of importance Reinforces positive/negative image individuals have of themselves depending on placement Stereotyping confers social identity on a person, raising expectations for certain behaviours that may result in a self-fulfilling prophecy Master status - a status that has exceptional significance for social identity Trumps all other statuses (often master status. could also be nationality, etc.) Role - The behavioral expectations and requirements attached to a position in a social organization Society insists we play our role correctly or risk being judged. But we’re not robots. Personality values → variations in behaviour of people with same status Occupants of a status may not be getting a clear, consistent message as to which behaviour is expected Multiple group memberships → conflicting expectations Though role performance may vary, stability remains. Strong tendency to conform Not only does behaviour change w/ role, but also do our attitudes, perceptions, personalities Zimbardo experiment: guards and inmate roles (psych lol) Roles protect individuals from responsibility for action Social control - need to demand conformity to some norms Sanctions - social rewards or punishments for approved or disapproved behavior Usually not oppressive to the individual; we want to obey the rules Social group - Two or more people who identify with each other and who share a distinctive set of relationships. Usu. classified by the kind / quality of relationships members have with each other Primary groups - small groups characterized by intimate, face to face interaction informal and long lasting (ex: nuclear family, gang, close friends) Secondary groups - Large, impersonal and formally o
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