Eitzen - Ch 3 Notes.docx

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Chuck O' Connell

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Ch 3 - Order and Conflict Order model (functionalism) - attributes to societies cohesion, consensus, cooperation, reciprocity, stability and persistence Society is a social system, composed of interdependent parts with complementary interests linked together creating order and stability. Parts will adjust to disruptions to maintain stability. Order theorists ask what is the nature of the social bond (what holds groups together) Duerkheim: two types of societies Smaller, less complex: solidarity among members because of collective holding of beliefs (i.e., people are alike) Modern, complex: social integration through differentiation (division of labour, dependence on others) Manifest consequence - intended (ex: Punishing and deterring a criminal) Latent consequence- unintended (ex: societal reaffirmation of what is moral) Conflict model - view of society that posits conflict as a normal feature of social life, influencing the distribution of power and the direction and magnitude of social change Competition rather than cooperation Social change comes from conflict between competing groups → drastic / revolutionary Ubiquitousness of conflict results from dissimilar goals / interests of social groups Marx: there’s tension between those who own the means of production and the workers Viewed these groups as the sources of division and exploitation (inequality) Laws, media, education all work for the advantage of the advantaged. status quo Dahrendorf: conflict comes from other aspects of social organization besides economic Organization means that power will be distributed unequally Constraints determined by the powerful → conflict between haves and havenots Unity results not from consensus but coercion Both models are partially correct. Why did scientists choose one over the other? It was in vogue at the time of the scientist’s intellectual development One model made more sense for analysis of particular problem of interest Ex: Marx explored causes of revolutionary social change; Durkheim on what holds society together Interpretations of sports Order model: sport symbolizes American way - competition, individualism, achievement, fairness Good way to socializeAmerican youth to adopt desirable character traits - accept authority, obey rules, strive for excellence. Promote unity of society’s members through patriotism (national anthem, etc.) Inspires ppl through heroic achievements of athletes Conflict model: Sport used to exploit athletes and meet goals of powerful (PR, prestige, profits) Validates prevailing myths of capitalism (anyone can succeed if they work hard) Divert attention away from harsh realities of poverty, unemployment, etc. False hope to oppressed members of society (image of wealthy athletes) Their chances to “make it” is very slim. Social problems - there are 2 types of social problems: societally induced conditions that cause psychic and material suffering for any segment of the population and acts and conditions that violate the norms and values of society Order and conflict perspectives view the causes differently Order: focus on deviants - what they do, their backgrounds, etc. Deviance assume to occur as a result of inadequate socialization. Not internalized values and norms because brought up with conflicting value systems or under infl. of deviant structure (gangs, etc.) Remedy is to rehabilitate deviants so they conform Conflict: criticize order theorists for blaming the victim. Deviants are a symptom of a disease Deviants are manifestation of a failure of society to meet individuals’needs Sources of social problems are found in laws, customs, wealth and power distrib. The established system, not the deviant, must be restructured. Synthesis of the order and conflict models - combining the best of each model The processes of stability and change are properties of all societies. Instrumental process - desire for technological change (new and more efficient techniques to achieve goals) Institutional process - designates all those activities dominated by quest for certainty (tradition, myths, religious beliefs, monotheism, monogamy, private property, sovereign state) Dialectic - opposing forces Societies are organized, but the process of organization generates conflicts Inequalities in power manifested in two ways Differential in decision making Inequalities in system of social stratification (classes / minority grps) Scarce resources can never be distributed equally to all people and groups in society Society is a social system There is not chaos but some semblance of order (action is generally predictable) Boundaries exist in terms of geographical space or membership There are parts that are interdependent Made up of different subsystems that affect each other in a certain way Parts of the system may have complementary or incompatible interests/goals Societies are held together by complementary
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