Eitzen - Ch 5 Notes.docx

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Chuck O' Connell

Ch 5 - Socialization Socialization - the process of learning cultural values, norms, and expectations Feral children - children alleged to have been raised by animals or in severe isolation Anna - feral child who couldn’t behave normally (didn’t move, show emotion, etc) When rescued, eventually learned to interact normally with other children Deprivation of social interaction during formative years deprives one of humanness Besides social contact, also need language. Profound effect on how people think and perceive the world. Labeling, delineating, etc. Associations with masculinity and femininity, opposite traits Personality as a Social Product Genes are not just carriers of heredity; get switched on and off in response to environment Self - George Herbert Mead's term for an individual's personality Beginnings - babies learn their cries attract attention, then eventually learn words Theories Looking-glass self - Cooley's concept of the importance of how other people influence the way we see ourselves “I am what I think you think I am.” People receive feedback from others. When behaviour of others perceived as consistent, the individual accepts this definition of self Ex: If you enter a room and people stop talking and go away all the time, it will definitely affect how you feel about yourself. Taking the Role of the Other - Mead believed children find out who they are as they learn about society and its expectations Imitation stage - infants learn to distinguish between themselves and others Self-conscious - age 2: children able to react to themselves as others react to them Play stage (4-7)- pretending to be different roles, act out behaviour and develop rudimentary understanding of adult roles; why people act the way they do Also crucial to devlopment of gender roles Game stage (8) - structured activities - rules define, limit and constrain participants Baseball analogy. Various individ. must know roles of all the players and adjust behaviour to that of others Significant others - Mead's term referring to people who are most important in determining a child's behavior; learn from them in the play stage Generalized other - pressures of society; internalization of society’s expectations in game stage Bandura - Social Cognitive Theory - people both produce and are produced by their environment Children observe behaviour of others and feedback, which serves as guide for actions Use cognitive skills to predict the outcome of their behaviour Personal control over thoughts and actions; adopt behaviour w/ outcome they value Backbone of advertising industry → show positive outcomes of a product Ex: Boy discouraged from playing with dolls if he receives neg. feedback from adults Freud - Psychoanalytic view Id - collection of urges and drives people have for pleasure and aggression Infant’s energies directed toward pleasure Ego - rational part of personality that controls id’s basic urges, finding realistic ways of satisfying biological cravings Superego - regulates id and ego; consequence of internalizing parents’morals Strong superego suppressed id and channels socially acceptable behaviour Society’s SocializationAgents The Family - primar
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