Eitzen - Ch 9 Notes.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Chuck O' Connell

Ch 9 - Social Stratification caste system - the closed system of social stratification, Membership is fixed at birth and is permanent In India, untouchables are on the bottom and do the dirty work In SouthAFRICA- based on race. Whites, Blacks, Coloreds (mixed races) andAsians. In SaudiArabia, men have higher status than women social stratification - pattern of structured inequity social differentiation - process of categorizing people by age, height, occupation, or some other personal attribute social stratification - when people are ranked in a vertical arrangement (hierarchy) that differentiates them as superior or inferior. It differs from differentiation because it has a process of ranking or evaluation. What is ranked depends on societal values Social stratification = structured social inequality inequalities aren’t caused by biological differences, but people give biological traits importance and incorporate them into their beliefs, attitudes, and values If you believe in something, it becomes true Life Chances - chances throughout one’s life to live and experience the good things in life better off people can purchase make life easier, longer, healthier, more enjoyable Those at the low end of spectrum will have more miserable lives family = principal unit in class system passes on privilege in wealth and resources from generation to generation men have more power and wealth than women social class - when a number of people occupy the same relative economic rank in the stratification system occupation, income, education will affect what class you are in privilege distribution of goods and services, situations, and experiences that are highly valued and beneficial class privileges are advantages, prerogatives, and options available to those in the middle and upper classes banks, credit unions, medical facilities, schools, voluntary associations Race - socially defined on basis of a presumed common genetic heritage resulting in distinguishing physical characteristics Ethnicity - condition of being culturally rather than physically distinctive common ancestry + common cultural background *Racial group that shares common heritage and has a common identity isALSO an ethnic group Gender - basic organizing principle of society that shapes activities, perceptions, roles, and rewards. patterning of difference and domination through distinctions between women and men sex-gender system - stratification system that assigns women’s and men’s roles unequally sex role - behaviors determined by individual’s biological sex Gender roles - social constructions assigned to each sex, can change Patriarchy - social organization in which men are dominant over women, in US society matrix of domination - intersections of hierarchies of class, race, and gender in which each of us exists people of the same race will experience race differently depending on their location in the class structure or sexuality system individuals experience different forms of privilege and subordination, and intersecting forms of inequality produce oppression and opportunity Power is distributed to some and not to others Order and Conflict Theories of Stratification Order model - social inequality = ubiquitous, unavoidable, and we need to fulfill certain functions to maintain society Davis and Moore there is a division of labor that is necessary, and the most talented people need rewards to induce individuals to fill the positions rewards must be distributed unevenly because positions are not equally pleasant or equally importan
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