Order model (functionalism) - attributes to societies cohesion, consensus, cooperation, reciprocity, stability and persistence. Society is a social system, composed of interdependent parts with complementary interests linked together creating order and stability. Parts will adjust to disruptions to maintain stability. Order theorists ask what is the nature of the social bond (what holds groups together) Smaller, less complex: solidarity among members because of collective holding of beliefs (i. e. , people are alike) Modern, complex: social integration through differentiation (division of labour, dependence on others) Manifest consequence - intended (ex: punishing and deterring a criminal) Latent consequence- unintended (ex: societal reaffirmation of what is moral) Conflict model - view of society that posits conflict as a normal feature of social life, influencing the distribution of power and the direction and magnitude of social change. Social change comes from conflict between competing groups drastic / revolutionary. Ubiquitousness of conflict results from dissimilar goals / interests of social groups.