Single indicators of variables seldom: capture all the dimensions of a concept, have suf ciently clear validity to warrant their use. Permit the desired range of variation to allow ordinal rankings. Compose measures, such as scales and indexes, solve these problems by including several indicators of a variable in one summary measure. Index- type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several speci c observations and represents some more general dimension. Scale- type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. Examples include bogardus social distance, guttman, likert and. Item selection- selecting items for a composite index which is created to measure some variable. Examination of empirical relationships- this is established when respondents answers to one questions help us predict how they will answer other questions. Index scoring- create a single composite measure out of the several items: handling missing data.