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Biology (118)
BSC 2010C (60)
Chapter 6

Textbook Notes for Chapter 6

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BSC 2010C
Christa Diercksen

Chapter 6  Cell = smallest functional unit of life; cell theory states that all organisms are composed of cells & all existing cells arose from pre-existing cells  Characteristics/functions of cells: o Contents surrounded by plasma membrane o Cytoplasm consists of semifluid matrix o Organelles embedded in cytoplasm o Contain genes in form of DNA o Highly structured o Relationship between structure and function o Carries out metabolism  Two types of cells: prokaryotic & eukaryotic PROKARYOTIC  Small  Lack nucleus, DNA in nucleoid region  Cytoplasm surrounded by plasma membrane & cell wall  Flagella and pili may be present EUKARYOTIC  Larger than prokaryotic  Complex internal structure w/ membranous & non-membranous organelles o Membranous – nucleus, ER, golgi, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes o Non-membranous – ribosomes, microtubules, centrioles, flagella, cytoskeleton  Animals have cell membrane, plants have cell wall  Four functional groups – manufacture, breakdown, energy processing, and support/movement/communication NUCLEUS  Nucleus = cell’s genetic control center  Surrounded by double membrane (DNA has to be highly guarded)  DNA normally present in nucleus as strands of chromatin; during cell division, the chromatin coils up into chromosomes  Nucleolus = organelle WITHIN nucleus, responsible for RNA synthesis  Nuclear lamina = turbulent fibers around border of nucleus that hold nucleus together until cell division ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM  Rough ER o Contains ribosomes attached to surface o Assists in protein synthesis  Smooth ER o No ribosomes attached to surface o Synthesizes lipids, processes materials, acts as storage and detoxifies substances GOLGI APPARATUS  UPS of the cell o Receives product from ER o Modifies it o Puts “Zip code” on it so it sends to right place in cell o Puts finished product in vesicle and sends it off  Receiveswarehousessortsmodifiespacksreships LYSOSOMES  Contain enzymes to digest substances and wastes  Are kept in hostile environments (acidic, corrosive)  Defective lysosomes can cause fatal diseases (i.e. Tay-Sachs)  Help your cells recycle materials  Degradation – breaking stuff down, chopping it up VACUOLES  Function in general cell maintenance (storage bins)  Hold organic substances in plants  Hold food/water and act as pumps in protists MITOCHONDRIA  POWER HOUSE  Found in all eukaryotic cells, except anaerobic protozoans  Double membrane – inner and outer  Si
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