Textbook Notes (363,452)
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Biology (118)
BSC 2010C (60)
Chapter 5

Textbook Notes for Chapter 5

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University of Central Florida
BSC 2010C
Christa Diercksen

Chapter Five  Macromolecules = large molecules o Polymers – large molecules with many repeating monomers o Monomers – repeating subunits used to build substances  Hydrolysis - breaking down a polymer by adding water to separate molecule  Dehydration synthesis – joining two subunits by removing a water molecule CARBOHYDRATES  Are sugars, many are polymers  Monosaccharaides are simple sugars (C6-H12-O6)  Disaccharides are two monomers joined by glycosidic linkage  Polysaccharides are two or more disaccharides o Storage – starch in plants, glycogen in animals o Structural – cellulose is a major plant cell wall component  Differences in links affect many thing LIPIDS  Are fats  Coat nerve cells  Non-polar & hydrophobic, don’t dissolve in water  Important for energy storage  Fatty acids (contains lots of Cs and Hs) o Saturated – solid at room temp (butter) o Unsaturated – liquid at room temp (olive oil)  More fluid because more double bonds  Phospholipids – phosphate (charged) head and nonpolar tail  Steroids are also lipids PROTEINS  Many different functions o Structural – support; ex: collagen and keratin o Contractile – movement; ex: actin & myosin (muscle contraction) o Storage – storage of amino acids; ex: digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis o Defense – protection against disease; ex: antibodies inactivate and destroy viruses and bacteria o Transport – transport of substances; ex: hemoglobin transports oxygen from lungs to other body parts o Signaling – response of cell to chemical stimuli; ex: receptors built into membrane of a nerve cell detect signaling molecules of other nerve cells o Hormonal – coordination of an organism’s activities; ex: insulin causes other tissues to take up glucose to regulate blood sugar concentration  AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins o 20 amino acids, 9 are essential (we have to eat them to get them) o polypeptides – many
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