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Chapter 9

COMPLETE Honors General Biology CHAPTER 9 Notes -- 4.0ed this course

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BSC 2010C

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BSC 2010C­­0001  Ch. 9: Harvesting Chemical Energy  Harvesting chemical energy involves mitochondria  GeneratesATP  With adequate O sup2lies food is “burnt” (aerobic respiration)  In absence of O f2od molecules are “fermented”  Overview of Cellular Respiration  Glucose is broken down yielding energy  Breakdown is catabolic (break bonds)  Synthesis or build –up is anabolic (build bonds)  Cell respiration stores energy inATP molecules  Overall equation:  C 6 12+ 6O ---2> 6CO + 6H2O + en2rgy  Efficiency ~40% compared with car ~25%  Energy is used for body maintenance and voluntary activity  Average human needs ~2200kcal/day  Cells do 3 types of work  Mechanical  Chemical  Transport  Energy obtained by transferring electrons (Hydrogens) from organic molecules to oxygen  Movement of H represents electron movement  Involves series of steps co+pling endergonic and exergonic reactions  Hydrogen carriers (like NAD ) shuttle electrons  Paired endergonic-exergonic reactions are known as redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions  Oxidation-loss of electron, exergonic  Reduction-gain of electron, endergonic  Breakdown of glucose involves series of redox reactions +  At each step breakdown portion oxidized and NAD reduced to NADH  Energy released when electrons “fall” from hydrogen carrier to oxygen +  NADH releases energetic electrons, regenerating NAD  Electrons enter electron transport chain  Series of redox reactions, passes electrons from one molecule to next  Ultimate electron acceptor is oxygen  Small amounts of energy released to makeATP  Two mechanisms for makingATP  1. Chemiosmosis  Involves electron transport chain andATP synthase  Uses potential energy of H gradient produced by electron transport chain to generateATP  2. Substrate-level phosphorylation 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]  Does not involve either electron transport chain orATP synthase -  ADP phosphorylated by enzyme using PO grou4 from phosphorylated substrate  3 stages of respiration  Glycolysis- in the cytoplasm  Kreb’s cycle-in the mitochondrial matrix  Electron transport chain-in the inner mitochondrial membrane (Cristae) …  Glycolysis  Harvests energy by oxidizing glucose into pyruvic acid (3C) in cytoplasm  Ten steps involved • Separate enzyme for each step + • Also requires ADP, phosphate and NAD • ATP required to form initial intermediates  Broken into two phases:  Steps 1-5 are endergonic = requireATP input  Steps 6-10 are energy-releasing= exergonic; makeATP and NADH  Net energy gain  1 Glucose 2 Pyruva
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