Textbook Notes (369,067)
United States (206,185)
Biology (118)
BSC 2010C (60)
All (11)
Chapter 14&15

COMPLETE Honors General Biology CHAPTER 14 & 15 Notes -- 4.0ed this course

5 Pages

Course Code
BSC 2010C

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
BSC 2010C­­0001  Ch. 14 and 15: Patterns of Inheritance  Gregor Mendel and the study of genetics  University trained in experimental technique  Had background in mathematics and understood probabilities  Worked with peas  Short life span  Numerous and distinctive characteristics  Mating can be controlled  Intentionally self-fertilized flower by covering with bag or cross-fertilized flowers by dusting carpels of one with pollen from other  Continuous self-fertilization for many generations resulted in true breeding plants  Monohybrid means dealing with a single trait  Like eye color or hair color  Dihybrid means dealing with two traits at the same time  Like eye color and hair color  Developed two principles on the basis of two types of experiments  Monohybrid cross-hybridized two true-breeding plants for one form of a single characteristic  Dihybrid cross-hybridized plants that combined two of the seven characteristics he studied  True-breeding plants are P (parental) generation  Offspring is F (first filial) generation 1  Offspring of two F ’1 is F 2second filial) generation  Mendel published in obscure journal in 1866  Argued that there are discrete, heritable factors (now called genes) that retain individuality from generation to generation  Alternative Forms ofAGene That Encode for Differing Forms Of The Same Trait  Example: Eye Color IsASingle Trait With Many Color Variations: Blue, Hazel, Brown, Green, Violet  Ways of expressing genetic information  Conventions for alleles:  P-the dominant (purple) allele, p-the recessive (white) allele  P generation means Parental  F 1ffspring Produced By the Parents “ Like the Children”  F 2ore Or Less Like “the Grandchildren”  Phenotype-physical characteristics of organism  Genotype- genetic make up of organism  Punnett Square used to track gametes and offspring  Homozygous: means that an individual has two of the same type of alleles for a given trait  Ex:  Homozygous Dominant (BB) = brown/brown for eye color 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]  Homozygous Recessive (bb) = blue/blue for eye color  Heterozygous: means that an individual has one dominant allele and one recessive allele for a given trait  Ex:  Bb is heterozygous for the eye color alleles.  Hemizygous: indicates a gene is present and active with only one copy;  Normally reserved for X-linked genes in males that have XY sex determination for the purpose of this class  Homologous chromosomes each carry one allele for a trait  Reside at same locus (location) on homologous chromosomes  One inherited from male, one inherited from female parent  So recall… Humans have 1-23 from each parent X 2  Haploid is one set (23)  Diploid is both sets (46)  Law of Segregation of Alleles  The allele for a given trait located on each homologous chromosome separates during meiosis.  Why??  Can use these principles to determine unknown genotypes  Use TEST CROSS  Involves crossing unknown genotype (shows dominant phenotype) with recessive phenotype (homozygous)  Two possible genotypes for unknown give different phenotypic ratios in F 1 • Unknown homozygous-all offspring dominant phenotype • Unknown heterozygous- / of2spring dominant, / off2pring recessive  Law of Independent assortment  This concept involves segregation (separation) of multiple pairs of alleles  This actually happens during meiosis  In this class, we will deal only with the situation in which the different pairs of alleles are located on different homologous chromosome pairs.  2 rule: n= # Heterozygous pairs  Ex:Aa Bb= 2 = 4 (AB Ab aB ab)  Munchkin is an aut. Dom. Gene that is lethal in embryonic cat cells  RULE OF MULTIPLICATION-probability of two events occurring together is product of two events occurring apart.  Ex: You toss two coins at the same time. They each independently will come up heads or tails. The probability that both coins will end up tails=½ X ½ = ¼  Non-Mendelian Inheritance  Atype of inheritance that does not follow strict patterns of dominant vs. recessive  There are several different types we will explore  Relationship between genotype and phenotype not simple 2 BSC 2010C­­0001   Incomplete dominance: one allele not completely dominant in heterozygote • Example-color in snapdragons • Note that in incomplete dominance the F1 of
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.