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Chapter 14&15

COMPLETE Honors General Biology CHAPTER 14 & 15 Notes -- 4.0ed this course

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BSC 2010C
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All

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BSC 2010C­­0001  Ch. 14 and 15: Patterns of Inheritance  Gregor Mendel and the study of genetics  University trained in experimental technique  Had background in mathematics and understood probabilities  Worked with peas  Short life span  Numerous and distinctive characteristics  Mating can be controlled  Intentionally self-fertilized flower by covering with bag or cross-fertilized flowers by dusting carpels of one with pollen from other  Continuous self-fertilization for many generations resulted in true breeding plants  Monohybrid means dealing with a single trait  Like eye color or hair color  Dihybrid means dealing with two traits at the same time  Like eye color and hair color  Developed two principles on the basis of two types of experiments  Monohybrid cross-hybridized two true-breeding plants for one form of a single characteristic  Dihybrid cross-hybridized plants that combined two of the seven characteristics he studied  True-breeding plants are P (parental) generation  Offspring is F (first filial) generation 1  Offspring of two F ’1 is F 2second filial) generation  Mendel published in obscure journal in 1866  Argued that there are discrete, heritable factors (now called genes) that retain individuality from generation to generation  Alternative Forms ofAGene That Encode for Differing Forms Of The Same Trait  Example: Eye Color IsASingle Trait With Many Color Variations: Blue, Hazel, Brown, Green, Violet  Ways of expressing genetic information  Conventions for alleles:  P-the dominant (purple) allele, p-the recessive (white) allele  P generation means Parental  F 1ffspring Produced By the Parents “ Like the Children”  F 2ore Or Less Like “the Grandchildren”  Phenotype-physical characteristics of organism  Genotype- genetic make up of organism  Punnett Square used to track gametes and offspring  Homozygous: means that an individual has two of the same type of alleles for a given trait  Ex:  Homozygous Dominant (BB) = brown/brown for eye color 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]  Homozygous Recessive (bb) = blue/blue for eye color  Heterozygous: means that an individual has one dominant allele and one recessive allele for a given trait  Ex:  Bb is heterozygous for the eye color alleles.  Hemizygous: indicates a gene is present and active with only one copy;  Normally reserved for X-linked genes in males that have XY sex determination for the purpose of this class  Homologous chromosomes each carry one allele for a trait  Reside at same locus (location) on homologous chromosomes  One inherited from male, one inherited from female parent  So recall… Humans have 1-23 from each parent X 2  Haploid is one set (23)  Diploid is both sets (46)  Law of Segregation of Alleles  The allele for a given trait located on each homologous chromosome separates during meiosis.  Why??  Can use these principles to determine unknown genotypes  Use TEST CROSS  Involves crossing unknown genotype (shows dominant phenotype) with recessive phenotype (homozygous)  Two possible genotypes for unknown give different phenotypic ratios in F 1 • Unknown homozygous-all offspring dominant phenotype • Unknown heterozygous- / of2spring dominant, / off2pring recessive  Law of Independent assortment  This concept involves segregation (separation) of multiple pairs of alleles  This actually happens during meiosis  In this class, we will deal only with the situation in which the different pairs of alleles are located on different homologous chromosome pairs.  2 rule: n= # Heterozygous pairs  Ex:Aa Bb= 2 = 4 (AB Ab aB ab)  Munchkin is an aut. Dom. Gene that is lethal in embryonic cat cells  RULE OF MULTIPLICATION-probability of two events occurring together is product of two events occurring apart.  Ex: You toss two coins at the same time. They each independently will come up heads or tails. The probability that both coins will end up tails=½ X ½ = ¼  Non-Mendelian Inheritance  Atype of inheritance that does not follow strict patterns of dominant vs. recessive  There are several different types we will explore  Relationship between genotype and phenotype not simple 2 BSC 2010C­­0001   Incomplete dominance: one allele not completely dominant in heterozygote • Example-color in snapdragons • Note that in incomplete dominance the F1 of
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