HSC 4500 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Determinant, Natural Experiment, Demographic Transition

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5 Feb 2017
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Chapter 1 Book Notes
Monday, January 16, 2017
8:27 AM
Epidemiology
Study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in a human
population and application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems.
Examples of health-related states: Diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality.
Sometimes referred to as population medicine.
Quantitative discipline.
Often considered biomedical science when it is an interdisciplinary science and observational
science
Primary function: To identify determinants or determining factors of health related states or
events.
Involves sound methods of scientific investigation
Two Methods and types: Descriptive and Analytic
Descriptive- Involves characterization of the distribution.
Analytic- Involves finding and quantifying associations, testing hypotheses, and identifying
causes
Population
All inhabitants in each area.
Distribution
Occurrence of health outcomes varies within populations, some subgroups more than others.
Risk Factors
A behavior, environmental exposure, or inherent human characteristic that is associated with
important health condition.
Determinant
Any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic.
Examples: Biological agents, chemical agents, and less specific health factors.
Exposures
Contact with a disease-causing factor or to the amount of the factor that affects a group of
individuals.
Outcomes
All possible results that may stem from exposure to a casual factor.
May be expressed as types and measures of morbidity and mortality
Morbidity- Illness due to a specific health condition
Mortality- causes of death.
Quantification
Use of statistical measures to describe the occurrence of health outcomes to measure their
association with exposures.
Natural History of Disease
Course of disease from beginning to final clinical end points
Modes of prevention: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
Primary
Prevention of disease prior to occurrence
Secondary
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