PET 3097 Chapter 3: Chapter3

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University of Central Florida
Physical Education Theory
PET 3097
Joseph Gordon

Chapter 3 Nutrition Basics and Caloric Requirements Nutrition Biological process whereby organisms take in nutrients and assimilate them into tissues Scientific study of food and how it sustains bodies and influences health Diet food patterns; the foods a person eats 1 kilocalorie contains 1,000 calories Caloric requirements depend on: body size and composition, level of physical activity, age, and sex Nutrients Macronutrients substances required in large amounts for growth and maintenance of basic bodily functions Water Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Micronutrients dietary elements needed in small amounts Vitamins Minerals Water Dehydration abnormal depletion of body fluids Water intoxication water poisoning, excess water consumption can lead to hyponatremia Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates single sugars or two linked sugar units Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: lactose, sucrose, maltose Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) three or more sugars linked together Starch body can break down starches from plants into simple sugars for absorption into blood stream Fiber indigestible plant polysaccharides Diets low in fiber contribute to constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis Insoluble fiber doesnt dissolve in water; passes through intestinal tract unaltered Soluble fiber dissolve in water, forming gel which slow digestion and enhances feelings of satiety Glycogen bodys storage form for monosaccharide glucose Glycogen stored in muscle and liver Liver breaks down glycogen, releasing glucose into bloodstream Protein and Fat Protein provides raw materials for bodys structural components Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids Complementary proteins incomplete protein sources that, combined, supply all the essential amino acids Fat most energy dense of all macronutrients Helps absorb fatsoluble vitamins (A,D,E)
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