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Chapter 12

PSY 2012 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Community Mental Health Act, Dorothy Dix, Electroconvulsive Therapy

Course Code
PSY 2012
Charles Negy

of 3
Chapter 12 – Treatment & Therapy
Throughout history, the ways most societies “treated” individuals who manifest deviant
or abnormal behavior are considered barbaric by contemporary standards.
In Europe, asylums for chronically mentally ill became somewhat commonplace around
the 1400s and existed for approximately 300 years.
These asylums were mostly dark, poor-ventilated dungeons in which seriously mentally
ill people were usually shackled to the walls, often naked, left to stand in their own
Philip Pinel – In 1792, he received permission from the French government to
experiment with an asylum by closing it to the general public and releasing the patients
from their shackles, including giving freedom to roam on a nearby courtyard. In addition
to their exposure to fresh air, the patients were given better food and their caretakers
were required to interact with them more humanely. The patients’ response was
overwhelmingly positive, to the point where he convinced the French government to
convert all asylums in France.
Dorothy Dix – A nurse who worked in a prison setting, who found herself in conflict with
the idea of imprisoning mentally ill people with actual prison inmates. Consequently,
she began what might be characterized as a “one-woman campaign” and traveled
throughout the country raising people’s awareness for the plight of our mentally ill.
Essentially, her goal was to convince those in charge of such matter to develop
residences exclusively for mentally ill patients. She was fairly successful and a slow
conversion occurred throughout the US.
Community Mental Health Centers Act – 1963, Thousands of mental patients were
released from hospitals and were granted their freedom and autonomy. Provision were
made to establish community mental health agencies across the US where mentally ill
people could go for guidance, assistance with completing forms to qualify for welfare
and housing, medical treatment, and so on. The ultimate outcome was not anticipated.
Many seriously ill individuals who do not have families to assist them, are not organized
or functional enough to locate the community mental health agencies. Consequently,
the US acquired a new “homeless” population, particularly in major cities.
Somatic Therapy – Making some form of intervention with a person’s body
Psychotherapy – Therapy of a psychological nature.
Somatic Therapy
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Cerletti – Observed workers at a slaughterhouse electrically shocking animals into
unconsciousness prior to killing them. He got the idea that it would be interesting to
experiment with shocking humans as a potential means for improving various mental
Electroconvulsive Therapy – A type of biomedical therapy. Attach electrodes to the
temporal regions of the brain and to pass a current of electricity through the brain. The
electrical shock induces a seizure.
Moniz – Introduced psychosurgery to the field of psychiatry.
Psychosurgery – Used on patients who were chronically violent and agitated.
Prefrontal Lobotomy – Severing the nerves connecting the front portion of the brain to
the thalamus.
Drug Therapy
oProzac – Used to treat depression
oValium – Used to treat anxiety
oRitalin – a stimulant and paradoxically given to children and adolescents who
manifest “hyperactive” behavior.
Free Association – A procedure by which patients are instructed to lie down, relax, and
to speak whatever thought or feeling that comes to mind. The key to the success of this
procedure is to not censor or edit any thought.
Transference - The redirection to a substitute, usually a therapist, of emotions that were
originally felt in childhood
Countertransference -The emotional reaction of the analyst to the subject's contribution
Empty-Chair Technique - The client imagined someone (or himself, herself, or parts of
him or herself) in it, and spoke, gestured, or otherwise communicated to the "empty
chair," which was now not so empty.
Gestalt Technique – Writing a letter as a form of therapy
Fritz Perls – Developer of Gestalt Psychology
Cathartic Effect - The purification and purgation of emotions
Phobia – A fear of a stimulus that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the
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Systematic Desensitization - A behavioral technique commonly used to treat fear,
anxiety disorders and phobias. Using this method, the person is engaged in some type of
relaxation exercise and gradually exposed to an anxiety producing stimulus, like an
object or place
Unconditional Positive Regard – To feel accepted and liked with no strings attached or
conditions. The client can “let their hair down” and be who she is, without worrying
over someone judging, criticizing, reprimanding, or threatening to end their relationship
is she does not conform.
Client-Centered Therapy - a form of talk-psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl
Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s.
Systems Therapy – Operates under the assumption that an individual’s behavioral or
psychological problems are symptomatic of a dysfunctional family.
Dysfunctional Alliances – Alliances are formed among different family members.
According to the family/system theory, the alliance with a family should consist of one
containing the parents and the other containing the children. It is acceptable for the
children to have sub-alliances.
Group Therapy – Approximately five to twelves people meet once a week to work on a
similar issue or problem.
Facilitators – Groups are led by therapist who are referred to as _________
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