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Chapter 11

PSY 2012 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Paranoid Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2012
Professor
Charles Negy
Chapter
11

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Chapter 11 – Abnormal Behavior
Abnormal behavior is also referred to as psychopathology, which is any behavior,
thoughts, r feeling that are considered deviant and violate society’s standards for
behavior.
What a given society considers normal and abnormal is quite arbitrary.
What constitutes “normal” and “abnormal” behavior is not as clear and simple as many
people tend to think
Humans display degrees of abnormality at various times or situations in their lives.
The world can’t be divided into normal and abnormal people/
Many psychologists who study psychopathology hold the view that many, if not most,
mental disorders result from the combined effect of a predisposition for a given
disorder (diathesis), and stressors that occur in a person’s environment that tend to
trigger or activate the predisposition.
oDiathesis-stress model of mental disorders
Intern’s Syndrome – Those who undertake the study of psychopathology find
themselves believing that they have some of the abnormal conditions.
Models of Psychopathology:
Various models have existed or been created to explain the etiology of abnormal
behavior.
Moral (or Demonological) Model
Throughout most of human history, societies worldwide have thought that the reason
individuals displayed abnormal behavior was because the individuals were possessed by
evil spirits or that the individuals themselves actually had become demons or witches.
The ways in which societies often dealt with these individuals were with methods that
are quite barbaric by today’s standards.
Trephining – carving a hole in a person’s skull. The apparent belief among who practiced
this was that the hole would allow the evil spirit that was trapped in the person to
escape, causing the person’s behavior to return to “normal.”
Beating the individuals extensively and burning them alive.
Medical or Biomedical Model
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Abnormal behavior was viewed by some as being caused by physiological condition,
such as hormonal problems, a chemical imbalance in the brain, or genetic defects.
The methods of treatment changed to methods that were more in line with the
biomedical attribution that was being made for the causes of abnormal behavior.
The influence of the biomedical model is still present in the modern world, although
other models of abnormal behavior developed subsequent to this model.
Psychogenic Model
Development is credited to Sigmund Freud
Many who succeeded him thought that most abnormal behaviors exhibited by humans
are caused by psychological problems, not by evil spirits, and rarely by medical
conditions.
Behavioral (or Learning) Model
Began with John B. Watson and his form of psychology called behaviorism
According to Watson, abnormal behavior should not be attributed to “deep
psychological problems” as asserted by Freud and others; instead, abnormal behaviors
were the result of having had a dysfunctional history or reinforcement and punishment.
Cognitive Model – Most problems humans have are a result of having irrational beliefs.
Sometimes individuals hold on to irrational beliefs and are unaware of the extent to
which the beliefs negatively affect their lives.
Socio-Cultural Model – Asserts that much of people’s problems results from living in
dysfunctional or unhealthy environments.
Diagnosing Abnormal Behavior:
David Rosenhan – Did a study in the 1970s which, in his mind, demonstrated the
arbitrariness and unreliability of clinically diagnosing patients or clients.
More on Diagnosing Mental Illnesses…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) – Published
in 1952 as a means to facilitate communication among psychotherapists about the
myriad of patients and clients being encountered in clinical settings and as an aid for
making accurate clinical diagnoses. It lists every currently known psychological problem
and provides information about the disorders’ features, prevalence rates, and specific
criteria necessary to make a diagnosis with a client or patient.
Personality Disorders:
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Personality traits are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about
others and to one’s self. When these traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and cause
distress to either one’s self or to others, they constitute a personality disorder.
There are currently ten distinct personality disorders.
Paranoid Personality Disorder – When individuals display a pervasive tendency to
interpret the actions of others as intentional maliciousness and the interpretation is
unwarranted.
oTends to manifest itself in late adolescence or early adulthood.
oThose with paranoid personality disorders go through life with an expectation
that either another, specified person, or some group of people are plotting
against them.
oThey interpret harmless jokes or comments made about them as proof that the
other person or people wish to harm them.
oPeople with paranoid personality disorder are not willing to do any reality testing
to confirm or disconfirm their suspicions; any attempt to convince them that
their suspicions are unfounded often only convinces them even more that their
beliefs of persecution are valid.
Schizoid Personality Disorder – Manifest a profound indifference to social relationship
and display a severely restricted range of emotional expressions or affect.
oInformation given to them about themselves as either praise or criticism equally
has little impact on them.
oSchizoid personalities report that they derive little pleasure from intimate
relationships with other people.
oTheir personality style naturally causes other to avoid them which results in their
having missed out on numerous opportunities to acquire critical social skills.
Antisocial Personality Disorder – Those with this disorder are called “Sociopaths.” The
key characteristics of these individuals is that they have little if any reservations about
exploiting others regardless of the form in which their exploitation occurs.
oEmpathy, the ability to imagine what it would feel like to be in somebody else’s
position is an unimportant quality for various reasons.
oThe other important characteristic they tend to lack is remorse.
oIf they do show remorse, often it is a ploy solely as an attempt to get a lighter
sentence from a judge when determining their prison sentence for their crime.
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