1. Scholars agree that settled agricultural life and
certain political, social, economic, and technological
traits are indicators of civilization, if not of every
2. temperate lands were exceptionally warm between 6000 and
2000 B.C.E., when people in many parts of the world adopted
agriculture. Pastoralism, a way of life dependent on large herds
of grazing livestock, came to predominate in arid regions.
pastoralists replaced farmers who migrated southward.
3. ancient humans would have
used skins and mats woven from leaves for collecting
fruits, berries, and wild seeds, and they would have dug
up edible roots with wooden sticks. Cooking makes both meat and
and easier to digest
4. The Neolithic Revolution is the changeover from food gathering to
food producing. It was a significant turning point for human race
because the change to food producing caused the adoption of
agriculture which forced domestication of animals for food. Also with
the change to food producing, families decided to settle permanently
near the fields.
5. The traditions of Kikuyu° farmers on Mount Kenya in East
Africa, relate that women ruled until the Kikuyu men conspired to get
all the women pregnant at
once and then overthrew them while they were unable to fight back.
6. Slavery existed on a limited scale and was of little
economic significance. Prisoners of war, condemned
criminals, and debtors could be found on country estates
or in the households of the king and wealthy families. But humane
treatment softened the burden of slavery,
as did the possibility of being freed.
7. The Sumerian gods embodied
the forces of nature: Anu the
sky, Enlil the air, Enki the water,
Utu the sun, Nanna the
moon. The goddess Inanna governed sexual attraction and violence. The gods had
bodies and senses, sought nourishment from sacrifice,
enjoyed the worship and obedience of humanity, and experienced the
human emotions of lust, love, hate, anger,
and envy. Cities built temples and showed devotion to the divinity or
divinities who protected the community.
8. The Egyptian state centered on the king, often known
by the New Kingdom term pharaoh, from an Egyptian
phrase meaning “palace.” From the Old Kingdom on,
if not earlier, Egyptians considered the king a god on
earth, the incarnation of Horus and the son of the sungod
Re°. In this role he maintained ma’at°, the divinely
authorized order of the universe.
Egypt: Egyptian religion evoked the
landscape of the Nile Valley
and the vision of cosmic order