Chapter 1.doc

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Department
American History
Course
AMH 2020H
Professor
Jeff Reinking
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1: 1. Scholars agree that settled agricultural life and certain political, social, economic, and technological traits are indicators of civilization, if not of every civilization. 2. temperate lands were exceptionally warm between 6000 and 2000 B.C.E., when people in many parts of the world adopted agriculture. Pastoralism, a way of life dependent on large herds of grazing livestock, came to predominate in arid regions. pastoralists replaced farmers who migrated southward. 3. ancient humans would have used skins and mats woven from leaves for collecting fruits, berries, and wild seeds, and they would have dug up edible roots with wooden sticks. Cooking makes both meat and vegetables tastier and easier to digest 4. The Neolithic Revolution is the changeover from food gathering to food producing. It was a significant turning point for human race because the change to food producing caused the adoption of agriculture which forced domestication of animals for food. Also with the change to food producing, families decided to settle permanently near the fields. 5. The traditions of Kikuyu° farmers on Mount Kenya in East Africa, relate that women ruled until the Kikuyu men conspired to get all the women pregnant at once and then overthrew them while they were unable to fight back. 6. Slavery existed on a limited scale and was of little economic significance. Prisoners of war, condemned criminals, and debtors could be found on country estates or in the households of the king and wealthy families. But humane treatment softened the burden of slavery, as did the possibility of being freed. 7. The Sumerian gods embodied the forces of nature: Anu the sky, Enlil the air, Enki the water, Utu the sun, Nanna the moon. The goddess Inanna governed sexual attraction and violence. The gods had bodies and senses, sought nourishment from sacrifice, enjoyed the worship and obedience of humanity, and experienced the human emotions of lust, love, hate, anger, and envy. Cities built temples and showed devotion to the divinity or divinities who protected the community. 8. The Egyptian state centered on the king, often known by the New Kingdom term pharaoh, from an Egyptian phrase meaning “palace.” From the Old Kingdom on, if not earlier, Egyptians considered the king a god on earth, the incarnation of Horus and the son of the sungod Re°. In this role he maintained ma’at°, the divinely authorized order of the universe. Egypt: Egyptian religion evoked the landscape of the Nile Valley and the vision of cosmic order that thi
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