Textbook Notes (362,810)
United States (204,237)
Zoology (13)
ZOO 3744 (2)
All (1)

Neurobiology Chapter Notes - 4.0ed the course!

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Central Florida
ZOO 3744

Ch. 1 Thursday, January 23, 2014 4:27 PM Important People (Greece) Hippocrates - brain is seat of intelligence Aristotle- heart is center of intelligence. Brain cools blood from the heart. (Roman) Galen- exp with spinal and brain injury and animal dissect. Found 3 structures: cerebrum, cerebellum, ventricles Cerebrum: sense and memory."soft brain" via ventriclesand nerve pathways Cerebellum: control of movement(initiated by ventricles connected to hollow nerves ie. From heart to muscle) (Renaissance) Andreas Vesalius: fluid-mechanical theory: fluid forced out of ventricles to nerves "pump you up" and cause limbs to move. Rene Descartes: Human has intellect and soul (mind). Brain is machine but mind is God-given. *pineal gland, center of brain, is gateway to God. CENTRALAND PERIPHERALNERVOUSSYSTEMS Nervous system has 2 div: -CNS (Central Nervous System) -brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord. -PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) -nerves, nerve cells outside brain and spinal cord (19th century) Charles Bell & Francois Magendie- Ablation studies found nerve conduction is unidirectional through ventral and dorsal roots. -ventral roots have only motor fibers. -dorsal roots have only sensory fibers. LOCALIZATIONOF BRAINFUNCTIONS Charles Bell proposed: -cerebrum is destination of sensory fibers -cerebellum is origin of motorfibers Franz Joseph Gall- wrote "phrenology". Correlatepersonality traits from skull shape. Marie Jean-Pierre Flourens- Experimental ablation method: destory brain parts to test function loss (birds) -Rejects Gall's phrenology. Paul Broca- founded region for speech in cerebrum. -Broca's area. Damage causes expressive aphasia: understands but cannot speak properly. "broke" language. "express impaired" -Wernicke's area damage causes receptive aphasia: cannot understand, can talk fine but makes no sense. "receive impaired" THE NEURON-BASIV FUNCTIONALUNIT OF BRAIN THE NEURON-BASIV FUNCTIONALUNIT OF BRAIN Cell theory- by Theodore Shwann. All tissues are made of cells. Ch. 2 Thursday, January 23, 2014 4:58 PM GLIAL CELLS -Outnumber Neurons -Glia (glue): insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons (10 times morethan neurons) -neurons or nerve cells: (10 billion) • Processinformation • Sense enviro changes through sensors • Communicatechanges to other neurons • Command body or other cells response • Different neurons have different functions NisslStain- basic dyes to stain nuclei and clumps of material around it with color. • To distinguish neurons from glia cells • For study of cytoarchitecture,or cell structures in diff parts of CNS. Golgi stain (CamilloGolgi): silver chromatesolution soaking. Cell body: soma or perikaryon Neurites: include dendrites (receive signals) and axons (carry out info) Idea: Neurites of diff neurons connect continuously. Neuron Doctrine: neurons are the functional units of the nervous system. Cajal's Contribution: Neural circuit made of indiv. Neurons. Cajal: Neurons communicateby contact (gaps or clefts between) Golgi: " by continuity. CLASSIFYINGNEURONS -Based on number of Neurites. Typicallymultipolar. Single neurite = unipolar (ie. Primary somatosensory) 2+ neurites = bipolar or multipolar (motor, MOST in CNS) THE ORIGINALNEURON Dendrite- (tree branches) "antennae" synapse = receptors. Dendritic spines. Postsynaptic(receives signals from axon terminal) Axon- communicatethrough neurons. Axon terminal or terminal button (swollen disk) Synapse- synaptic transmission: electrical-to- chemical-to-electricaltransformation Chemical synapses (receptors) use neurotransmitters. Axon transport- fast axon transport of membranousorganelles 1. Anterograde: (soma to terminal) radioactive amino acid. OUT. Use PHA-L inject. OUT 2. Retrograde: (terminal to soma) transport. INTO. Use HRP inject. CELLS OF PNS: Shwann Cells Each cell forms myelin around small segment of one axon. Myelin- mult. Layers of cell membrane. Node of ranvier- section of unmyelinated axon membrane between 2 shwann cells. CNS: Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) -formed by astrocytes. Astrocytefoot processes secrete paracrines that form tight junction. Tight junction prevents solute movementb/t endothelial cells. CELLS OF CNS: Glial cells and functions 1. Oligodendrocytes: forms myelin sheath. 2. Microglia(immune cells):"scavengers" 3. Astrocytes: • provide substrates for ATP prod. • Form BBB. • Secrete neurotrophic factors. • Take up K+, water, neurotransmitters. • Source of neural stem cells (Ependymal cells too) 4. Ependymal cells: create barriers between compartments. Source of neural stem cells. Ch. 3 Thursday, January 23, 2016:27 PM ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY What is it? EXTRACELLULAR(INTERSTITIAL)AND INTRACELLULARCOMPARTMENTS Equilibriumand disequilibrium Equilibrium: state of rest/balance
More Less

Related notes for ZOO 3744

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.