ENVIRON 157 Chapter Notes - Chapter N/A: Bioenergy, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Critical Role
Course CodeENVIRON 157
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an integrated suite of technologies that can prevent large quantities
of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from being released into the atmosphere.
As the name implies, CO2 is captured before it is emitted into the atmosphere. Captured CO2 is then
transported to a carefully selected and secure storage site, where it is injected deep into a rock
formation for permanent storage
1. CAPTURE – the separation of CO2 from other gases produced at large industrial process facilities such
as coal and natural gas power plants, steel mills and cement plants.
2. TRANSPORT – once separated, the CO2 is compressed and transported, usually via pipelines, to a
suitable site for geological
3. STORAGE – CO2 is injected into deep underground rock formations, often at depths of one kilometre
It is one of the few technologies able to adequately displace CO2 from coal and gas-fired power stations
and the only technology capable of reducing large-scale emissions from myriad industrial sources.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and International Energy Agency (IEA) have both
evidenced the critical role that CCS must play in meeting global emissions reduction goals.
Most significantly, CCS is starting to demonstrate its climate change prowess in delivering commercial
returns in a new energy economy where hydrogen production and bioenergy are starting to gain
Carbon dioxide can be separated from a carbon emission source either before or after it has been
combusted (burnt) to produce energy or other products, such as cement and steel. There are three ways
to capture CO2 that can be applied to the power sector:
• Pre-combustion technology
• Post-combustion technology
• Oxyfuel combustion.
Today, CO2 is already transported most often by pipeline, but also by ship and road tanker, primarily for
use in the oil industry where CO2 is injected into mature fields to enhance oil recovery, as well as for use
in the food and beverage industry.
Possible storage sites include depleted oil or gas fields, rocks containing unpotable saline water
formations or incidental storage during enhanced oil recovery (EOR). these sites generally have an
impermeable trap, also called a ‘seal-rock’, above them.
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