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Chapter 1

GEOG 152 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Paris Nanterre University, Berlin Wall, Nikita Khrushchev

Course Code
GEOG 152
Agnew John

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Geog 152
Prof. Agnew
Fall 2016
Jerram book
Book: Streetlife: The Untold History of Europe's Twentieth Century by Leif Jerram
10,000 years ago: humans stopped wandering and settled down in farms, living in large
groups of people → 19th century formation of European CITIES!
By the end of the 19th century, the “West” was formed (large European cities in
north & east of France, northern Italy, all of Belgium, etc.)
Population explosion occurred in cities, but not the countryside
City: Manchester, England: 1800: population 75,000 people → 1900: 2,117,000
Countryside: Norfolk: 1801: population 273,000 → 1901: 476,000
The move to cities caused for people to need new rule books instead of religious texts
Before living in cities, people in the countryside turned to the Bible, Quran, Torah
for rules on morality, political order, economics, family
The spaces of cities mattered in history
Factories brought people together in new formations
Layout of streets that made them unpoliceable
Development of suburbs to undermine socialism
Europe deindustrialized by the 1970s, and production shifted to the Far East (Japan,
China, Vietnam, India)
Chapter 1
Why were Moscow and St. Petersburg more vulnerable to revolutionary politics in
the early twentieth century than other large European cities at that time? (pp. 29-
Russia had fewer cities, fewer factories, undeveloped banks/stock exchanges →
slow industrial development
Serfs were peasants who stayed in a lifetime of debt due to buying their freedom
with loans
Only when workers were not serfs could cities really grow
1892: Russian economy opened up to foreign investment → Britain, Germany,
France’s investments flooded in → cities grew in Russia → explosive factory
Peasants were evenly distributed around Russian city centers
In Britain/France/Germany, the poor were segregated into their own
Russian factories were significantly larger than Western Europe/USA’s factories
Largely employing unskilled workers in Russian factories, compared to
fewer skilled, artisanal workers in Britain/Germany
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