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Chapter 6

LIFESCI 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Endergonic Reaction, Exergonic Reaction, Kinetic Energy

Life Sciences
Course Code
Esdin Joseph

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Chapter 6
Energy, Enzyme and Metabolism
o Proteins made inside the cell are found
Embedded or attached to the plasma membrane
In the cell cytosol
o Enzymes and Metabolism
In living organisms, thousands of chemical reactions occur
Metabolism is the combination of all chemical reactions
Catabolic reactions
Breakdown molecules to release energy
Cellular respiration
Usually exergonic reactions
Anabolic reactions
Use energy to build complex molecules from simple ones
Usually endergonic reactions
Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics
Bioenergetics is the flow of energy in biochemical systems
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work
Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion
o Muscle activity, light, thermal energy
Potential energy is the energy of state or position
o Chemical bonds
With repeated energy transformations, usable energy decreases and
unusable energy increases
Entropy and Heat
o More heat → More molecular movement → More disorder
o Biological systems are bad at using heat energy to do work
o Free Energy
Gibbs Free Energy is the energy left after the reaction
Biological Chemical Reactions
Exergonic reaction
o Energy is released as the reaction proceeds to form
o Spontaneous reaction
Endergonic reaction
o Energy is absorbed as the reaction proceeds
o Non-spontaneous reaction
A reaction can be labeled one or the other by quantifying the
energy transition from the reactants to the products
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