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Chapter 9-10

CHEM 1127Q Chapter 9-10: CHEM 1127Q Chapter 9-10: Pre-lecture 13: Sections 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 10.1

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University of Connecticut
CHEM 1127Q
Joseph De Pasquale

9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law Pressure and Temperature: Amonton's Law ● Amonton or Gay-Lussac’s Law - The pressure of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the kelvin scale when the volume is held constan β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 = 𝑃×𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 β—‹ 1= 2 𝑃 1 𝑃2 ● Absolute zero - lowest possible temperature, 0K Volume and Temperature: Charles’ Law ● Charles’ Law - The volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the kelvin scale when the pressure is held constant β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 = 𝑃×𝑃 𝑃 1 𝑃2 β—‹ 𝑃 1= 𝑃2 Volume and Pressure: Boyle’s Law ● The volume of a given amount of gas held at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure under which it is measured 1 1 β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 = 𝑃× 𝑃 𝑃 β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃1= 1 𝑃 2 2 Moles of Gas and Volume: Avogadro’s Law ● For a confined gas, the volume (V) and number of moles (n) are directly proportional if the pressure and temperature both remain constant β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 = 𝑃×𝑃 𝑃 1 𝑃2 β—‹ 𝑃 1= 𝑃2 Ideal Gas Law ● Ideal gas law - relation between the pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of gas by relating all laws mentioned above β—‹ 𝑃𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃𝑃 β–  P = pressure of a gas β–  V = volume of gas β–  n = number of moles of gas β–  T = temperature of gas (kelvin) βˆ’1 βˆ’1 β–  R = ideal gas constant, 0.08206 𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 1 1 𝑃2𝑃2 β—‹ 𝑃 = 𝑃 = 𝑃×𝑃 1 2 ● Ideal gas is not realistic, but assume relatively low pressure and high temperature Standard Conditions of Temperature and Pressure ● Standard temperature and pressure (STP) - gases at 273.15K and 1 atm (101.35 kPa) ● Standard molar volume - ideal gas at STP has volume of 22.4L 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures and Reactions Density of a Gas 𝑃 ● 𝜌 = 𝑃 ● Temperature and pressure of gas must be stated when calculating density (usually is reported at STP) Molar Mass of a Gas ● 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃 𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃 𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃 ● 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃 ● 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑃 The Pressure of a Mixture of Gases: Dalton’s Law ● Assuming now chemical reaction, individual gases in a mixture do not affect each others pressure ● Each individual gas in a mixture exerts the same pressure that it would if present alone in the container ● Partial pressure - pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture ● Dalton’s law of partial pressures - the total pressure of a mixture of ideal gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases β—‹ 𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 + 𝑃 +..𝑃= 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 𝑃 β–  𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = total pressure of a mixture of gases β–  𝑃 𝑃 partial pressure of gas A, etc ● Mole fraction (X) - concentration, # of moles of a component of a solution divided by the total # of moles of all components 𝑃𝑃 ● 𝑃 =𝑃𝑃 ×𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 where 𝑃𝑃= 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 Collection of Gases Over Water ● Vapor pressure of water - pressure exerted by water vapor in equilibrium with liquid water in a closed container (depends on the temp) Chemical Stoichiometry and Gases ● Chemical stoichiometry - describes quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions Avogadro’s Law Revisited ● All gases that show ideal behavior contain the same # of molecules in the same volume (at same pressure and temp) ● Therefore, volumes of gases involved in a chemical reaction are given by the coefficients in the reaction ● Gases combine/react in definite and simple proportions by volume 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases ● Atoms move randomly and very quickly while colliding ● Mean free path - average distance a molecule travels between collisions β—‹ MFP increases with decreasing pressure β—‹ M
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