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CHEM 1127Q (29)
Chapter 1

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CHEM 1127Q
Fatma Selampinar

1 - Matter and Measurement 1.1 – Matter and Its Classifications  3 phases of matter o Solid  fixed shape + volume o Liquid  fixed volume, but not rigid in shape (takes shape of container) o Gas  neither fixed volume nor shape (takes on shape and volume of its container)  Can be classified with respect to its compositions o Pure substances – each has a fixed compositions + unique set of properties o Mixtures – composed of 2 or more substances Elements  type of matter than cannot be broken down into 2 or more pure substances o 118 known elements o 91 of those occur naturally  Defined by its symbol o Ag, Br, H, Pb, etc) Compounds  pure substance that contains more than 1 element  have fixed compositions o a given compound always contains the same elements in the same percentage by mass.  Can be resolved into elements through many different methods o heat o electrolysis  passing an electric current through a compound Mixtures  contains two or more substances combined in such a way that each substance retains its chemical identity  2 types o Homogenous (uniform)  Composition is same throughout  Also called a solution  Solvent – substance present in largest amount  Solute – added to solvent o Heterogeneous (non-uniform)  Can be separated many ways  Filtration o Mixture passed through a barrier with fine pores  Distillation o Used to separate a homogenous solid-liquid mixture o Liquid is vaporized, solid residue left over, liquid obtained by condensing vapors.  Chromatography o Takes advantage of difference in solubility and/or extent of adsorption on a solid surface  Gas-liquid liquid chromatography  Mixture of volatile liquids and gases is introduced into one end of a heated glass tube; tube is packed with an inert solid whose surface is coated with a viscous liquid, and an unreactive “carrier gas” is passed through the tube; the components of the sample gradually separate as they vaporize into the carrier gas condense into the viscous liquid. o More volatile fractions move faster and emerge first o Successive fractions activate a detector and recorder 1.2 – Measurements  Metric system o decimal-based system o all of the units of a particular quantity are related to one another by factors of 10. Instruments and Units  length o the distance light travels 1/299,792,458 of a second 1 cm = 10 m -3 1 mm = 10 m 3 1 km = 10 m 1 nm = 10 m  volume o expressed in either: 3  cubic centimeters (cm )  1 cm = (10 m) = 10 m -6 3  liters (L)  1 L = 10 m = 10 cm3 3  milliliters (mL) 3  1 mL = 1 cm o Most commonly measured in a graduated cylinder, pipet, or buret  Mass o Expressed in either:  Grams (g) -3  1 g = 10 kg  Kilograms (kg)  Milligrams (mg) -3  1 mg = 10 g  Megagram/metric ton (Mg) = 10 g = 10 kg 3 There is a difference between mass and weight! Mass = amount of matter in an object. Weight = measure of gravitational force acting on the object. Weight changes with gravity; mass does not.
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