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Chapter 10-11

ANTH 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10-11: Oscar Lewis, Enculturation, John Maynard Keynes

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Casey Walsh

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Chapter 10: Class and Inequality
Class- a system of power based on wealth, income, and status that creates an unequal
distribution of a society’s resources
Is Inequality a Natural Part of Human Culture?
Egalitarian society- a group based on the sharing of resources to ensure success
with a relative absence of hierarchy and violence
Ex. hunters and gatherers, Amish
Reciprocity- the exchange of resources, goods, and services among people of
relatively equal status; meant to create and reinforce social ties
Favor will eventually be reciprocated
Ranked society- a group in which wealth is not stratified but prestige and status
Ex. Chief (very hereditary)
Set regardless of skill or efforts
Lives similar lifestyle as everyone else
Redistribution- a form of exchange in which accumulated wealth is collected from
the members of the group and reallocated in a different pattern
Chief earns status through reciprocity and generosity
Globalization and industrialized capitalist economies cause stratification and
inequality in the distribution of wealth
How Do Anthropologists Analyze Class and Inequality?
Theories of Class
Karl Marx: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
19th century social upheaval (Industrial Revolution)
Farmers moved to cities because of gov policy restrictions
bourgeoise=capitalist class vs. proletariat=working class
Max Weber: Prestige and Life Chances
Also looked at Western Europe Industrial Revolution
By prestige= reputation or influence because of belonging to a
certain group
Depends on culture
Ex. physicians, farm workers
Pierre Bourdieu: Education and Social Reproduction
Studied French educational system
Social reproduction- the phenomenon whereby social and class
relations of prestige or lack of prestige are passed from one
generation to the next
Economic differences
habitus→ self-perceptions and beliefs that shape
Cultural capital→ knowledge, habits, and tastes
learned from parents and family
Ex. travel abroad and learn social skills
Schools favor this and create social classes
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Leith Mullings: Intersectionality among Race, Gender, and Class
Harlem Birth right Project
Infant mortality rates abnormally high
Poor environmental conditions and relatively poor
How are class and inequality constructed in the U.S.?
Ethnographic Portraits of class in U.S.
Poor Whites in Rural Kentucky
Pem Davidson Buch
Intersection (class, race, gender)
What are the Roots of Poverty in the U.S.?
“Culture of poverty”
Oscar Lewis
Kids in environment learn to be dependant and helpless
Poverty as a structural economic problem
Flexible accumulation (cheap labor overseas)
Need more gov intervention
Why are class and Inequality largely invisible in U.S. culture?
The role of the media
The consumer culture
More debt from mortgages, credit cards, student loans
What are the effects of global inequality ?
Uneven distribution of food
Preventable infectious diseases kill people
Access to education
Caste- the system of dividing society into hereditary classes
Chapter 11: The Global Economy
Cacoo in Côte d’Ivoire fuels election
Sparks civil war
What is economy, and what’s its purpose?
Food foraging
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