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Chapter 2

ANTH 2 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: White Supremacy, Margaret Mead, Cosmopolitanism

by

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 2
Professor
Casey Walsh
Chapter
2

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Chapter2:
Culture:asysofknowledge,beliefs,patternsofbehavior,artifacts,andinstitutionsthat
arecreated,learnedandsharedbyagroupofppl
Enculturation:theprocessoflearningculture
Norms:ideasorrulesabouthowpplshouldbehaveinparticularsituationsortoward
certainotherppl
Exogamy:marriageoutsideone’sgroup
Values:fundamentalbeliefsaboutwhatisimportant,trueorbeautifulandwhatmakes
agoodlife
Symbol:anythingthatsignifiesanythingelse
MentalMapofReality:culturalclassificationsofwhatkindsofpplandthingsexist,and
theassignmentofmeaningtothoseclassifications
CulturalRelativism:understandingagroup’sbeliefsandpracticeswintheirowncultural
context,w/outmakingjudgements
UnilinealCulturalEvolution:thetheoryproposedbynineteenthcenturyanthropologists
thatallculturesnaturallyevolvethroughthesamesequenceofstagesfromsimpleto
complex
HistoricalParticularism:theideaattributedtoFranzBoasthatculturesdevelopin
specificwaysbecauseoftheiruniquehistories
● Boas:diffusiontheborrowingofculttraitsandpatternsfromotherstoexplain
apparentsimilarities
Boas=Jewishimmigrant;sensitivetoracialstereotypingandworkedtochallengewhite
supremacyandtheinferiorrankingofnonEuroppl
Boas’students=RuthBenedict(exploredhowculttraitsandentirecultsareuniquely
patternedandintegrated)andMargaretMead(focusedonenculturationanditseffects
ofcultpatternsandpersonalitytypes)
StructuralFunctionalism:aconceptualframeworkpositingthateachelementofsociety
servesaparticularfunctiontokeeptheentiresysinequilibrium
InterpretivistApproach:aconceptualframeworkthatseescultprimarilyasasymbolic
sysofdeepmeaning
Power:theabilityofpotentialtobringaboutchangethroughactionorinfluence
Stratification:theunevendistributionofresourcesandprivilegesamongparticipantsin
agrouporculture(basedonpowerfromgender,race,ethnicity,family,class,age,
religion,sexualityorlegalstatus)
Hegemony:theabilityofadominantgrouptocreateconsentandagreementw/inapop
w/outtheuseofthreatofforce
Agency:thepotentialpowerofindividualsandgroupstocontestnorms,values,
symbols,mentalmapsofreality,institutionsandstructuresofpower
Cosmopolitanism:aglobaloutlookemerginginresponsetoincreasingglobalization
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