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Molecular, Cellular & Develop. Biology

SOC152A: Human Sexuality MIDTERM 2 REVIEW ***Chapter 15: STD’s will not be covered in the review, but WILL be on the midterm. See lecture notes, book and STD chart available on Gauchospace *** CHAPTER 13 :Sexual Variety is the Spice of Life Fetishism – sexual arousal by inanimate objects, materials, or body parts. • Partialism: fetishistic attraction to specific parts of the body • Media fetishism: sexual attraction to materials like fur, silk,… • Acrotomophilia: fetishistic interest in amputees or amputation • Objectophilia / Object fetishism: sexual arousal by inanimate objects At what point is someone classified as a “fetishist?” 1. Opinions vary, but the book promotes that someone can be called a fetishist even if they are not diagnosable as having a mental disorder 2. The internet plays a large role in “normalizing” variant forms of sexual expression • The internet facilitates communication among fetishists & promotes fetishism awareness 1. See Box 13.1 on Rubber Fetishism and the Internet – p. 409) a. “Ataraxia” means “peace of mind” 59 yr old rubberiest b. psychiatrists told him there’s no cure; why not enjoy? c. Heterosexual rubberists have trouble finding sympathetic spouses d. connects rubberists (they’re not alone) i. Personal stories, practical info, how to make rubber clothing… ii. 90% of visitors are male iii.heterosexual oriented but has info for both homo / hetero e. Gay fetishists find partners easier f. Psychology of rubber fetishism i. Sense of encasement “return to the womb” ii. Warm, moist, environment where every part of the body is covered with rubber. 2. Cross Dressing – wearing the clothing of the other sex, for any of a variety of reasons. Practical Reasons: women wearing men’s clothing for employment; men’s clothing could be more practical (blue jeans instead of skirts) a. Doing Drag: Wearing of exaggeratedly feminine clothing by a man, often for entertainment purposes. b. Transgendered Cross Dressing i. May be a vital expression of their gender identity 1. Not really “cross dressing” bc they’re dressing with their sex I.D. ii. Typically, transsexuals attempt to pass as the other sex, not to parody it c. Transvestic Fetishism or transvestism i. Cross dressers (mostly men) who do it for sexual arousal ii. Many heterosexual transvestites keep their cross dressing secret out of fear of ridicule/ rejection iii. Continuum of traits that change sexual arousal towards representations of women (clothing) 1. Apart of fetishism (arousal by objects) iv. Autogynephilia: form of male to female transexuality characterize by a man’s sexual arousal at the thought of being or becoming a woman 3. Some progress through a series of traits (see pg. 410 and Box 13.2 on pg. 411) a. Heterosexual Transvestic Fetishism borderline autogynephilia i. Put on women’s clothes & fantasized about being a lesbian woman having sex with another woman. ii. More turned on by lingerie than by porn iii. Considered if he was homo iv. Wife unaccepting v. Struggle with transvestism & returns to it secretly 4. Sadomasochism – (S/M) the infliction & acceptance of pain or humiliation as a means of sexual arousal. a. Sadism – sexual arousal by the infliction of pain, bondage or humiliation on others, or by witnessing the recipient’s suffering b. Masochism – Sexual arousal from being subjected to pain, bondage or humiliation c. Can be physical and/or psychological d. Forced submission is the key erotic element e. May include bondage (use of physical restraint) and dominance (use of humiliation or subservience) f. BDSM – acronym given as an all-inclusive term for bondage, dominance (or discipline), and sadomasochism i. May be practiced with all degrees of intensity ii. Read more about on pgs. 412 iii. See lecture notes 1. Widespread interest 2. Flourishing gay male BDSM culture iv. Dominatrix: woman who inflicts pain/ humiliation in BDSM setting v. Can be dangerous “edge play” 1. Use safe words 2. Usually more conventional sex afterwards to review 3. Psychological elements of power, trust & dependency 5. Adult Babies – Adult who obtains sexual satisfaction from acting as a baby or toddler a. Normalized by internet b. Can pay for “babysitters” Paraphilia- Problematic sexual desire or behavior 1. Unusual form of sex arousal/ behavior that is considered to be a psychological problem 2. 3 main issues to consider (although these cannot be considered an absolute criterion) 1.) Must be recurrent/ long-term & beh required for arousal 2.) Must cause significant distress to person/ harm other people 3.) Victim? a. Ex: sexual sadism disorder can be diagnosed if: b. Over a period of 6 months, recurrent & intense sexual arousal from suffering of other P c. Clinical distress or impairment Generalizations of paraphilia • often extensions or exaggerations of common sexual desires & behaviors • far more M than W develop them • Paraphilias being at early age & tend to be more pronounced over time • Ppl who start out w 1 kind of paraphilia may eventually exhibit multiple • Certain personality traits are common among paraphiliacs: lack of social skills, inadequacy, depression, sometimes rage against women • Paraphilacs commonly have cognitive distortions believing that their behaviors are sexually exciting or beneficial to ppl they target. Exhibitionism – a paraphilia involving exposure of genitalia to strangers, sometimes with masturbation (“flashing”) • Indecent exposure: crime of exposing genitals or female breasts in public. • Exhibitionism defined behaviorally • Often exhibit hypersexuality: high rates of many diff kinds of sex behaviors • Common, “hands-off” & may be taken lightly BUT o 1. Victims of indecent exposure may be traumatized o 2. some of victims are children o 3. Exhibitionists are likely to reoffend c. In legal terms, this is the crime of indecent exposure (So, stop flashing your genitals on DP!) d. The emotional reactions (shock/ fear/ amusement/ …) are rewarding behavior to the exhibitionist (so, the best thing to do is to stay calm and walk away) e. Hypersexuality is a related behavior i. Very common f. Usually shy men who lack self esteem, self assurance, social skills, … Voyeurism “peepers” – obtaining sexual arousal from watching unsuspecting people while they are undressing, naked, engaged in sex, urinating or defecating a. Very common b. Usually discrete c. Widespread interest promoted in porn Frotteurism – “groper” – obtaining sexual arousal from physical contact with others in public places without their consent • Usually discretely in a crowded, public place • May wear plastic bag to not visibly soil clothes (or not) 4.) See Box 13.3 on pg. 418: Frotteurism on public transit a. Women who travel on public trains or buses b. Common offense. c. Hands going up skirts of women on trains d. Hard to distinguish innocent from criminal contacts Sexual Contact with Children 1. Pedophilia and Child Molestation (NOT identical) a. Pedophile – a person whose sexual feelings are directed mainly towards prepubescent children a. Sexual arousal to children is equal or greater than to adults b. Some molest, some don’t (it’s wrong, consequences, or are sexually satisfied with adults) c. Pedophilia considered sex orientation b. Child molester – an adult who has had sexual contact with a prepubescent child a. Some are pedophiles, some just lack adult partners, some seek to hurt child’s parents, intoxication, or brain damage b. Hebephiles (like a pedo but for kids in puberty- pre teens) c. Intrafamilial child molesters: molest within family d. Extrafamilial child molesters: molest outside of family c. Female pedophiles are uncommon but do exist; usually affected boys don’t claim abuse & offender not apprehended d. Attraction may be to boys and/ or girls a. Hetero pedos outnumber homo pedos i. Homo pedos in contact w law are more likely to have had contact w multiple kids, not acquainted kids, & reoffend after conviction ii. Homosexual pepdos tend to be more emotionally disturbed & have lower levels of intellectual function b. Pedophiles don’t distinguish between Gs & Bs sharply Box 13.4: Should Hebephilia be a paraphilia? • Mental disorder theory: Pedohebephilia: attraction to prepubescent and/or pubescent children. o Theory -- Three subtypes:  1. Pedophilic  2. Hebephilic: more sex arousal to pubescent kids than pre-pubescent kids/ post-pubescent adults  3. Pedohebephillic  civil commitment: detention of a person having a mental disorder that creates a threat to himself or others 2. It is still uncertain whether pedophiles have distinctive personalities a. We do know that criminal pedophiles: • lack social skills • lack empathy • lack self esteem/ self- assertion • lonely & psychologically distressed • experience cognitive distortions • are emotionally disturbed • have disordered thought processes like schizophrenia • likely suffer from other paraphilias • Catholic Priest scandal w/ child molestation Some organization support ‘minor attracted people’ g. B4U-ACT – works with ‘minor attracted people’ to remain within the law i. Promote mental health services & public understanding & mutual support for minor- attracted persons h. NAMBLA (NorthAmerican Man-Boy LoveAssociation) i. Opposes some boys can give meaningful consent to sex ii. Age of legal consent varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction AVariety of Other Paraphilias Exist Telephone Scatalogia-sexual arousal from making obscene telephone calls a. Does not cover prank phone calls or phone sex b. Obscene callers are aroused by the reaction (real or perceived) of the woman a. Less common than in the past b. Women who monitor 24 hotlines are likely victimized Zoophilia – a persistent preference for sexual contacts w animals; considered as a paraphilia a. bestiality – sexual contact between a person and an animal iii.May be a farm animal or a household pet! iv. Most occur during (pre) adolescent years and can hardly be considered a paraphilia Necrophilia – paraphilia involving sexual arousal from viewing/ contact w dead bodies a. Rare b. Some men are turned on when their living partners “play dead” It’s a crime to rape dead bodies whether that body was murdered or not Autoerotic asphyxia – self- strangulation for purposes of sex arousal (see Box 13.5 on pg. 426) • Increase intensity of orgasm by constricting the flow of blood to the brain during masturbation cerebral cortex partially knocked out by lack of oxygen • Risks accidental death • Commonly misidentified as suicide • Compulsive behavior – needs psychotherapy Sex Offenders Do Not Necessarily Repeat their Offenses 1. As a group, are less likely to repeat offenses than are people convicted of many other kinds of crimes 2. Megan’s Laws (in some states only)- notified of sex offender neighbor 3. Certain factors : intellectual disability, alcohol abuse or history are associated with an ↑ in recidivism(repeating past offense) Numerous Theories of Paraphilia 1. Biological factors a. may run in families b. May result from disconnection in brain regions c. Damage to certain specific brain regions that regulate sexual expression 2. Learning Processes a. Classical/ Pavlovian conditioning: modification of behavior by learning thru reinforcement/ association 3. Courtship Disorder (pgs. 430) a. Some paraphilias can be seen as a disorder of normal courtship behavior i. stage one of normal behavior is location & evaluation its counterpart paraphilia would then be voyeurism 4. May represent a sexual escape route a. Some people may become paraphiliacs due to blockage of normal avenues of sex expresison i. may be deficient in social skills -looks to alternative aveneues for sex expression b. Not a conclusive theory 5. Cycle of Abuse a. cycle in which some abused kids grow up to repeat ab
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