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Chemistry and Biochemistry
Bill Trogler

1. Energy has units of Joules = the ability to do work: a. E = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy i. Potential energy is the potential for movement or work. This involves gravitational, electrical, chemical, or nuclear applications. ii. Kinetic Energy Is energy due to the motion of the object – translation, vibration, and rotation. iii. Potential and kinetic energy can be interconverted. Total energy is conserved in a closed system. b. The potential energy gained when energy is used to separate the charges is converted to kinetic energy as the attraction pulls these charges together. 2. Energy Efficiency Varies: a. Natural gas can be burned to heat a house with about 95% efficiency in a modern furnace. However the car is only about 15% efficient in using the fuel to move the car and power the accessories. While there is room for improvement, thermodynamics limits the efficiency of the combustion engine to about 51% - 16% due to entropy. 3. Temperatures Scales and Interconversions a. Kelvin(K) –Absolute temperature scale begins at absolute zero.At 0K, atomic movement is not possible, except that is allowed b quantum mechanics for the
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