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Chapter 1-7

HINE 114 Chapter 1-7: HINE114 Textbook Note and IDs


Department
History
Course Code
HINE 114
Professor
Hasan Kayali
Chapter
1-7

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Chapter 1
I. Arabian Peninsula: Mountainous region: only land frontier is Syrian Desert
A. Climate
1. High temperatures, absence of moisture
B. Three clearly defined areas
1. Hot, narrow coastal plain (Tihama
, or lowland)
2. Hills, with peaks rising to several thousand feet (Hijaz,
barrier)
3. Great plateau that dips eastwards to central deserts
II. Bedouins (means desert-dwellers…”Arab/abhar
”= to move or pass)
A. Life Pattern: remained unchanged through centuries since days of Abraham.
1. Nomadic
a) No supreme authority. Shaikh
(chief) is merely a first among
equals. Had several tribes instead.
(1) Shaikh chosen by elders from the adult males of the ruling
house. Role is to govern people according to ancient
custom and defend them against their enemies.
(2) Constant ghazw
(raid) on one territory over another. No
supreme public authority-->hard to punish/ control crime.
(3) Pride of descent is strong, divorce easy.
b) No predominant language: south different from north, different
alphabets.
(1) Northerners mostly nomads
(2) Southerners settled agriculturists.
2. Trade
a) Arabia draw into stream of international trade.-->proper-->Assyrian
interest.
3. Religion (ancient Semitic paganism)
a) Polytheistic--worshipped nature: trees, streams, stones=where
deities resided.
b) Authority of gods was local and limited.
c) No temples of priesthoods. Usually carried their gods with them.
d) Challenged by monotheistic Christianity.
**Arabia suddenly pull out of themselves and thrust onto path of world empire was a combo of:
appearance among them of a man of genuis, the founder of a new religion, and the mutual
exhaustion of their great neighbours in the north, Rome and Persia. (at the end of a war nearly
30 years (603-629) were utterly incapable of stemming the onrush of the hordes of Islam.)
Chapter 2: The Prophet: Muhammad (name means worthy of praise)
I. Islam
A. Monotheism to utmost limits: Allah has no rival and no son, no trinity, etc.
II. Teachings
A. Quran=written word of God, even though personally written by MD. Prophecies MD
received from God himself.

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a. Most authentic mirror of his career and doctrine
B. Hadith: traditions, sayings, and stories of the Prophet that were guaranteed by an isnad
,
or chain of witnesses.
a. Memory is fallible, isnads may be forged, and desires of parties or groups could
be falsified.
b. Not a very reliable source
C. Sira
: formal biography
III. History
A. Born in between 570 & 580.
B. Father: Abdallah
a. Raised as an orphan. Abd al-Muttalib=grandfather, Abu Talib=uncle.
C. Raised in flourishing trading community in early Mecca.
a. Regular caravans travelled north to Damascus & Gaza..carried Arab incense,
Chinese silk, Indian spice, African slaves/ivory.
b. Rising prosperity was producing a social crisis within the town.
i. Disparity between rich and poor.
D. Yet, MD did not grow up in the “aristocracy” of the this commerical republic.
E. Married Khadija, older widow at the time.
IV. Kuraish (Quraysh)
A. People of Mecca claimed descent from a common ancestor, and the government of the
city was vested in a council comprising the heads of the leading families.
V. First Prophecies
A. The angel Gabriel first came to him--apparently earliest revelations were short sentences
or ejaculations in praise of the majesty and unity of God.
a. To be saved from wrath of God, sinner must submit to the mercy of God. (islam
means submission...that’s where the name came from).
B. First ones only shared with private circle of relations and friends.
a. Earliest converts: Khadija, Ali (cousin--son of Abu Talib), Abu Bakr (closest
companion), Othman(part of Omayya clan)and 9-10 others.
C. Early Days in Career
a. 613: First preaching in Streets of Mecca--met with scorn and ridicule, which
turned to anger on Kuraish chiefs.
i. Isolated and alone, esp because uncle and aunt died in 619. Uncle
offered protection for MD, but with his death, protection revoked-->had to
flee-->flee to Yathrib
b. MD flees to Yathrib (now known as Medina).
i. 617/618 violent battle between arab tribes and Jewish
people.-->appointed MD as their new leader, esp because he was
prophet of God.
ii. Known as Hijra (emigration or withdrawal): 622: 75 Medinans entered into
a compact by which they recognized MD as the apostle of God and
promised to defend him as they would their own kin.
1. Muhajirun
(Emigrants)=his followers on the hijra.

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D. MD in Medina
a. Starting to establish new practices
i. Kibla: direction of prayer: changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.
ii. Ramadan: single day’s fast of the Atonement was substituted with a full
month, during which all food and drink was interdicted between the hours
of sunrise and sunset.
b. Jihad: holy war: MD receives revelation that urged the Muslims to “contend” with
their pagan adversaries.
i. 624: first campaigns opened with the ambushing of a caravan at Nakhla.
ii. Meccans responded with caravan of nearly 1000 men...MD only had 300,
but displayed military skill-->Islam emerged with success from its first
battle-->belief that the fight was victorious because of God
himself-->encouraged MD to take action against Jews.
iii. Lucky for MD, Kuraish failed to display unity, energy, or resolution when
fighting each other. Divided and weak in leadership.
E. Growing success
a. Kuraish fear him, MD able to perform his devotions at the Kaaba.
b. 630: Mecca capitulated-->MD takes possession of his birthplace in placid
triumph. Demolished the idols of the Kaaba and dedicated the building afresh to
the worship of the one true God. By 631: MD proclaimed that in future no pagan
would be permitted to approach the Kaaba.
c. More converts, esp because those who accepted Islam received most favorable
treatment.
i. Christians and Jews remained under Muslim protection because regarded
them as valid religions. (dhimma), as long as they paid the jizya, tax or
tribute.
d. 632: MD leads the hajj
:pigrimage to Mecca. Dies on June 8 of the same year.
F. Problem of sucession
a. MD died with no son or any obvious heir.
G. Tenats established
a. Five pillars of Islam
i. Shahad
: profession of faith
ii. Salat:
daily worship...fixed at 5 prayers a day
iii. Sawm:
fast of Ramadan
iv. Zakat:
Almsgiving
v. Hajj:
pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in lifetime.
Chapter 3: The First Conquests (633-642)
Islam spread extremely fast and wide. Problem: not much documentation and the lands they
conquered had such different cultures, languages, leadership, etc. They attributed success to
God.
a. Courageous fighters because believed if they died in battle, they automatically went to
heaven.
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