MMW Textbook Notes (Dubois)

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University of California - San Diego
Making of the Modern World
MMW 11
Page Dubois

MMW Pages 70-81 Notes  Harappan Society o Named after Harrappa, one of two chief cities, developed in the Indus o Two problems we don’t know about Harappan, hard to excavate and no one to decipher written records o Foundations of Harappan Society  The Indus Rivr  Like the Nile the indus draws its waters from rain and melting snow in towering mountains(from Hindu Kush and Himarlayas-world’s highest peaks  Indus deposits burden of rich soil in lowlands like Nile  Sowed wheat and barley, meat from herds of cattle, indus first domesticated chickens  Pakistan and Northern India- larger than Egypt and Mesopotamia  Political Organization  Harappa and Mohenjo-daro big cities but not sure if they were political centers, no evidence of any political organization  Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro  Has city walls, a fortified citadel, and granary o Suggest that they served as centers of political authority and where collected taxes  Both had marketplaces, temples, public buildings, broad streets  Mohenjo-Daro had large pools maybe for religious or ritual purposes  These two cities influenced other cities  Specilized Labor and Trade  Pottery, tools and decorative items were traded domestically and in foreign o Harappan Society and Culture- rich society  Social Distinctions  Rulers wielded great authority from citadels  Peasants in jaro lied in one-room tenements in barrackslike  Found a bronze figurine of a dancing girl  Fertility Cults  Strong concern for fertility  Recognized a mother goddess and a horned fertility god  Harappan Decline  Ecological degradation was a major cause of decline o Deforestation led to erosion of topsoil and also to reduced amounts of rainfall-became a desert  Periodic flooding also weakened this  Harappan beliefs did not die with them  The Indo-European Migrations and Early Aryan India o Nomadic and pastoral peoples speaking Indo-european languages-Aryans o Aryans and India  The Early Aryans  Kept sheeps and goats, horses, and cattles, heavily a pastoral economy  Aryans weren’t really hindus, ate beef  The Vedas  Their sacred language, Sanskrit  Vedas- the earliest and most important of which is the Rig Veda, a collection of 1,028 hymns addressed to Aryan gods  These represent a priestly perspective on affairs  The Vedic Age  Aryans clashed with Dravidians- Aryans wrecked irrigation systems, etc  The Vedas identify Indra, the Aryan war god and military hero, as the one who ravaged citadels and smashed dams  The Aryans didn’t have a central govt. so they formed hundreds of chiefdoms organized around herding communities and agriculture, most chiefdoms had a raja, a king  Aryan Migrations in India  Aryan groups settled in Punjab- began to cultivate rice  Migrated to the Ganges river valley as well  Changing Political Organizations  Councils of elders won recognition as the rincipal sources of poltical authority o Directed affair of small republics  Chiefdoms developed into regional kingdoms o Origins of the Caste System  The Aryan socil structure rested on sharp hereditary distinction sbetween individuals and groups according to their occupations and roles in society  Caste- social class of hereditary and unchangeable status  Caste ad Varna  Varna use to refer to major social classes, Varna means color in Sanskrit  Diistintcions arose from complexion Aryans- wheat colored Dravidians- darker skinned  Social Distinctions in the Late Vedic Age  Four main varnas- Brahmins(priests), Kshatriyas(warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas(cultivators, articans, and merchants), and shudras(landless peasants and serfs). And untouchables-people who performed dirty tasks  Rig Veda says varnas came from gods  Subcastes and Jati  Occupation determined a person’s jati. People working at the same time in agiven area belonged to the same subcaste, untouchables belonged to jati  Elaborate rules dictated forms of address and specific behavior appropriate for communication between members of different castes and subcastes  Caste and Social Mobility  Could move up and down social ladder o Happened as a group with jatis o The Development of Patriarchal Society  Men dominated Aryan societies, priests, warriors, and tribal chiefs were men  Women did not get educated or learn vedas o The Lawbook of Manu  Manu, founder of the human race according to indian mythology  This dealt with proper moral behavior and social relationships  The author advised men to treat women with honor and respect o Sati  Women voluntarily threw herself on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband  Religion in the Vedic Age o Aryan Religion  Aryan Gods  Indra-war god. He also had a domestic dimension, the Aryans associated him with the weather and the coming of rain to water  They also recognized the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease, dawn, and the underworld  They believed that the god Varuna presided over the ksy from his heavenly palace, where he oversaw the behabior of mortals  Ritual Sacrifices  Involved dozens sometimes hundreds of animals o They sought to gets gods support through this  Spirituality  Believed souls could experience transmigration and reincarnation  Beginning 800 bc many thoughtful individuals went to forests of the ganges valley where they live as hermits and relected on the relationships between humans the world and the gods. MMW Pages 81-85  The Blending of Aryan and Dravidian Values o The Upanishads  (a sitting in front of)- refers to th practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues  Most disciples men o Brahman, The Universal Soul  Taught that appearances are deceiving  Thought that each person participates in a larger cosmic order and forms a small part of a universal soul known as brahman  Brahman is an neternal, unchanging, permanent foundation for all things that exist  Authors of Upanishads believed that soul was born many times, but main goal for soul was to escape cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into Brahman o Teachings of the Upanishads  Samsara- upon death individual souls go temporarily to the world of the fathers and then return to earth in new incarnations  Karma- accounted for specific incarnations that souls experienced  Brhadaranyaka Upanishad- a man of good acts will become good and vice versa  Moksha- characterized as a deep, dreamless sleep that came with permanent liberation from physical incarnation  Way to get here was asceticism and meditation o Religion and Vedic Society  Doctrines of Samsara and karma reinforced the vedic social order  They advocated honesty, self-contro, charity, and mercy  Respected animals so vegetarians MMW Notes Pages 168-183  The fortunes of Empire in Classical India o The Mauryan Dynasty and the Temporary Unification of India  520 BCE Persian emperor Darius conquered northwestern Indian and made the kingdom of Ghandhara in N. Punjab  Establishment of Achaemenid authority introduced Persian techniques  Kingdom of Magadha  Located in ganges plain,  Started to expand into neighboring states, gained control of commerce with this  Chandragupta Maurya  First state to bring a centralized and unified govt. to most of the india  Started by taking Magadha  Conquered greek state in Bactria  By 4 century BCE he had india from indus to ganges (Northwestern)  Chandragupta’s Govt.  Kautalya was an advisor and his advice survive in Arthashastra, a manual offering detailed instructions on the uses of power and principles of gov o Ministering the empire, collecting taxes, maintaining order  Ashoka Maurya  grandSon of Chandragupta Added southern india to empire  Ashoka was grandson, he conquered Kalinga to control trade  Ruled through a Bureaucracy, built capital at Pataliputra where a central administration developed policies for the whole empire  Had a central treasury which checked if taxes were collected  Buddhist  Expanded agriculture by building irrigation systems, built roads,  Decline of the Mauryan Empire  Suffered from acute financial and economic difficulties o The emergence of Regional Kingdoms and The Revival of Empire  Bactrian Rule in Northwestern India  Regional kingdoms developed after mauryan empire fell  Northwestern india fell under the rule of Greek-Speaking conquerors from Bactria- they went as far south as Gujarat o They linked commericial centers from china and Mediterranean basin  The Kushan Empire  Put an end to bactrian empire,  Served as cultural intermediaries because they kept trade safe between countries  Ghandhara style was important for the early development of Buddhist art  Gupta Dynasty  Guptas based their state in Magadha  Empire rose by Chandra Gupta in 320 BCE  The guptas left local govt. and administration and even the making of basic policy in the hands of their allies in the various regions of the empire  Science and Mathematics  Indian physicians developed techniques of plastic surgery and astronomers determined earth was a sphere  Mathematics was most important, they made 0  They calculated value of pi  And length of solar year  Gupta Decline  The nomadic White Huns invaded  Regional governors usurped the imperial rights and powers, gupta declined  Economic Developmment and Social Distinctions o Agricultural surpluses encouraged emergence of towns, the growth of trade, and further development of the caste system o Cleared forests o Towns and Trade  Towns and Manufacturing  Some towns provided manufactured goods, pots textiles iron tools  Saddalaputta owned 500 workshops of pottery distributed to the ganges valley  Long Distance Trade  Political foundation in places enabling merchants to deal with their counterparts in lands  Indians went to Persia and Mediterranean basin also to china o Exported cotton, armoatics, black pepper, pearls, and gems o Imported horses and bullion and silk  Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin  Sailed to Indonesia where they exchanged pearls, cotton, and black peppers for spices and exotic local products o Family Life and the Caste System  Gender Relations  Patriarchal families  Women were largely subordinate to men  Mahabharata and Ramayana portray this  Child marriages  Women devoted themselves to family matters  Social Order  Trade and industries encouraged development of caste system  Castes and Guilds  Individuals working in the same craft or trade usually joined to form a guild, a coporate body that supervised prices and wages in a given industry and provided welfare of members and their families  Guilds functioned as subcastes known as jati, based on occupation  Guilds intermarried  Wealth and Social Order  Members of vaishya and shudra had the obligation to work as directed by the higher castes, trade brought wealth to vaishyas and sometimes shudras to became wealthier and more influential than their Brahmin and Kshatriya contemporaries  Religioons of Salvation in Classical India o Charvakas had materialistic view, that human beings came from dust no gods o Jainism and the Challenge to the Established Cultural Order  Vardhamana Mahavira  Jainism- this teacher turned to this religion in late 6 century  Jainist doctrine came from Upanishads, they believe that everything in the universe posess a soul o Only by purification of selfish behavior could the souls gain release from their imprisonment  Jainist Ethics o Purified by ahimsa, nonviolence  Vegetarian, swept floors to avoid invisible insects  Appeal of Jainism o No class distinctions o However very hard to observe o Early Buddhism  Siddhartha Gautama  Came from a Kshatriya family like mahavira  He decided to take up an ascetic, wandering life like the monk to understand suffering  Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment  Sat in meditation for 49 days until he found out what suffering was o he became Buddha after this, the enlightened one  The Buddha and His Followers  Gave sermon to his religion, named Turning of the Wheel of the Law  Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma  Four Noble Truths- teaches that all life involves suffering, that desire is the cause of suffering; that elimination of desire brings an end to suffering; and that a disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Noble Eightfold path brings the elimination of desire o Leave luxury o Includes right belief, resolve, speech, behavior, occupation, effort, contemplation, meditation  Nirvana- a state of perfect spiritual independence  Dharma- doctrine of Buddhists  Appeal to Buddhism  Did not recognize social distinctions  Used regular language not Sanskrit  Stupas- shrines housing relics of Buddha  Ashoka’s Support  Official patronage fromm mauryan dynasty  He may have followed bcuz he was saddened by death of kalingans  He sponsored it and followed it very well in his empire o Mahayana Buddhism  Attracted low class people  A truly righteous existence involved considerable sacrifice: giving up personal property, forsaking the search for social standing, and resolutely detaching oneself from the charms of family and the world  Development of Buddhism  Started to consider Buddha as god, made people closer to Buddhism  Bodhisattvas- were individuals who had reached spiritual perfection and merited the reward of nirvana, but who intentionally delayed their entry into nirvana to help others struggling  The Spread of Mahayana Buddhism  Mahayana lenient doctrine of Buddhism than Theravada Buddhism. o Means greater vehicle  Nalanda  Monasteries became education institutions  At Nalanda, it was possible to study not only Buddhism but also the Vedas, Hindu philosophy, logic, mathematics, astrology, and medicine o The Emergence of Popular Hinduism  This addressed the interests and met the needs of ordinary people  The Epics  The two great books illustrate development of Hindu values  Mahabharata- bloody civil war for the control of northern india between two groups of cousins o Had a poem for the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world who intervened frequently on behalf of virtuous individuals  Ramayana- a love and adventure story involving the trials faced by the legendary prince Rama and his wife Sita. o Ideal Hindu couple
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