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Chapter 1

MMW 11 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Paleolithic, Neolithic, Homo Erectus

Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 11
Edmond Chang

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Week one: Mackey pp1-14 e
1. The Earliest Human Societies
To understand the early human past: ppl originated from Africa,
retreat of glaciers led to domestication of plants and animals. Larger
brain enable ppl to adapt new environment and face new challenges.
Natural selection cause dissimilarity and new species can be formed.
Species( developed in 18th century Europe) : a group of organisms
that can interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring for
both sex.
Humans were in the animal kingdom, the order of Primates, the family
Hominidae, and genus Homo. Measure age: C-14 carbon.
Paleolithic era:or Old Stone Ageduring which ppl use stones to make
tools to 采集狩
Neolithic era: or New Stone Age, when ppl started domestication and
9000 B.C.E transition between New Stone Age and Old Stone Age.
Pleistocene: began about 2.5 million years ago and is marked by
repeated advances in glaciers. Helps ppl to migrate to other places
separated by sea.
Holocene: Last 12 thousand years.
2. Hominid Evolution
Primates went down to the ground between 6 and 7 million years ago.
Australopithecines: between 2.5 and 4 million years ago.
2.5 million years ago, a group of Australopithecines started using tools
and evolved into Homo habilis ( handy human )
Homo erectus: upright human
Homo Sapiens -- Thinking humans
Inventing better tools requires larger brains
3. Migration and Differentiation
HS spread across Africa by 200,000 years ago, Africa to Europe by
120,000 years ago.
Homo sapiens sapiens: anatomically modern human
Neanderthal: hominids perform the same activities with HS, but
belongs to a separated branch of highly developed Homo erectus.
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