MMW 12 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1 (ROI): Quraysh, Zoroastrianism, Ali

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MMW 12 Textbook Notes The Rise of Islam: Chapter 1: Historical Overview
The Pre-Islamic Near East
Qur’an: the revelation received by Muhammad
Quraysh: principle tribe of Mecca; Muhammad was a member
Sassanid’s official faith Zoroastrianism
Hostility between Near East and Byzantine Empire
Religious diversity
Trade
o Small towns like Mecca were centers of trade
Pre-Islamic Arabia
Lack of central administration
Tribal affiliation
Sedentary communities
Semipastoralists
Raiding on property, with prisoners used as slaves/hostages
Revenge important
Poetry a form of cultural expression
Camels and horses important
Leadership hereditary
New chiefs selected based on ability
Chiefs little to no role in religion
Judaism and Christianity, Paganism
The Prophet Muhammad
Earliest works 9th century
Death 632
Biographies, historical works, Hadith, Qur’an
Born 570
Orphan
Raised by uncle
Merchant
Married and had many children
o Fatima, Khadija
When he was 14, Gabriel appeared to him
Divine unity and power, must choose between the will of God and get salvation, and
eternal damnation
Started preaching privately, then publically
Pagans didn’t like him
Goes on a nighttime journey to Jerusalem and ascends to Heaven
The Hijra
622
Went to Medina
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