MMW 12 Chapter Notes - Chapter Week 5: Artha, Prostitution, Sexual Intercourse
DepartmentMaking of the Modern World
Course CodeMMW 12
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Author: Vatsyayana, a Hindu philosopher in the Vedic tradition (i.e. 2nd century CE)
l Ordinances of religion must be obeyed
l Application of proper means is necessary. A person who does nothing will enjoy
l True principles of the science—mastery over the sense without becoming the
slave of the passion
n Dharma (virtue or religious merit)
n Artha (worldly wealth)
n Kama (pleasure or sensual gratification)
Chapter I. Preface
l Kama Sutra: Aphorisms on Love
Chapter II. On The Acquisition of Dharma, Artha and Kama
Artha and Kama in youth and middle age; Dharma in old age, seeking to gain
Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama.
A man practicing Dharma, Artha and Kama enjoys happiness both in this world and
in the world to come.
n Performance of sacrifice and not to do things that belong to this world
n Learned from the Shruti (that to be heard), Holy Writ
n Sacrifices are seen to bear fruit
n Acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth, equipages and friends
n Further, the protection of what is acquired
n Learned from the king’s officers and merchants
n Enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of hearing, feeling,
seeing, tasting and smelling
n Ingredient is a peculiar contact between the organ of sense and its object
n Consciousness of pleasure which arises from that—Kama
n Learned from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from the practice of
n The occupation of public women
n Sexual intercourse requires the application of proper means by them, which
are to be learned from the Kama Sutra—not brutal creation
n Pleasure are equally required—necessary fro the existence and well being
of the body as food.
n Pleasure is the result of Dharma and Artha.
n Pleasures are to be followed with moderation and caution.
Chapter III. On The Arts And Sciences To Be Studied
l Young maids should study Kama Sutra before marriage, and should continue to
do so with the consent of husband after it.
l Some arts should be studied together with the Kama Sutra.
n A public woman endowed with a good disposition, beauty and other
wining qualities obtains the honor and respect
n Capable of supporting herself easily by mean of her knowledge of arts
n Attractiveness to men
Chapter IV. The Life of A Citizen
A man should become a householder and pass the life of a citizen, performing his
usual business—duties of the day with diversions and amusements.
l Festivals (may held in honor of the different Deities)
l Social Gatherings (assembly of citizens engaging in agreeable discourse)
n Completion of verses
n Testing knowledge of arts
l Drinking Parties
l Going to Gardens or Picnics
n Men accompanied by public women and followed by servants
Chapter V. About The Kinds of Women Resorted To By The Citizens, and of
Friends and Messengers
l Practice of Kama with women of higher castes is prohibited. Practice of Kama
with women of lower castes is neither enjoined nor prohibited.
l The object of practicing Kama with women of lower castes is pleasure only
l Nayikas are any women who can be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of
accomplishing pleasure or progeny (children).
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