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Chapter Reading

MMW 14 Chapter Notes - Chapter Reading: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Montesquieu, Pierre BaylePremium

3 pages103 viewsWinter 2019

Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 14
Professor
Edmond Chang
Chapter
Reading

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The Enlightenment
The Early Enlightenment
The Enlightenment was a change in thought and ideas that followed the Scientific
Revolution
The Dutch Republic was the main center for the beginning of the Enlightenment
They had a firm commitment to reason and religious tolerance and took in many
of the Protestants from France who were made illegal by the revocation of the
Edict of Nantes
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)
Huguenot who took refuge from gov persecution in the Dutch Republic
Historical and Critical Dictionary (1697)
Examined the religious beliefs and persecutions of the past
Espoused a belief that became known as skepticism
Nothing can be known without a doubt
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
Key figure in the transition from the Scientific Revolution to the Enlightenment
Also Dutch
Used the rational thinking of scientific work and applied it to man
Monism -- the body and mind are united into one and God and nature are the
same thing
Different from Descartes’ dualism
Excommunicated by the Jewish community in Amsterdam
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716)
Developed calculus independently of Newton
Theodicy (1710)
Argued that this is the best of all possible worlds because God created it
Refuted both Descartes and Spinoza and believed that there were an infinite
number of substances of which matter was composed of
John Locke (1632-1704)
Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
Sensationalism -- the idea that all human ideas and thoughts are
produced as a result of sensory impressions
Went against Descartes’ idea that that ideas are based on deductive logic
and argued that they come from experience
Tabula rasa
The Influence of the Philosophes
Philosophes -- a group of influential intellectuals in France
Since there was heavy censorship in France at the time, they wrote novels,
plays, dictionaries, and encyclopedias that were satirical
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
The Persian Letters (1721)
Social satire
The Spirit of Laws (1748)
Written in response to the growth of royal power under Louis XIV
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