PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Chapter 2 Textbook Notes
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 101
Professor
Adena Schachner
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 2 (p39-64 and p70-74) – 4/13/17 - Introduction o Investigate perceptual capacities and ability to learn from experience before birth  Plays loud sound next to ear; participant moves vigorously in response, so concludes that the participant can hear the sound  Continues playing sound over and over, causing less of a reaction each time  Plays different sound, where participant reacts vigorously; recognize difference  Conclusion: while in the womb, fetuses can detect range of stimuli from the outside world and can learn from these experiences and be affected by them after birth - Prenatal development o Historical views th  4 century: Aristotle asked, does prenatal life start with the new individual already preformed, composed of a full set of tiny parts, or do the many parts of the human body develop in succession?  Rejected preformation. Rather believed in epigenesist: the emergence of new structures and functions during development  Experiment: opened fertile chicken eggs to observe chick organs in development  Notion of preformation still prominent at the time, wondering if the preformed human was in the mother’s egg or the father’s sperm o Conception  Union sperm cell and egg (gametes/germ cells) create single cell  Gametes contain only half the genetic material found in somatic cells  Gametes produced through meiosis: cell division, eggs and sperm only receive one member from each of the 23 chromosome pairs contained in other cells  Almost all eggs a woman will ever have are formed during her own prenatal development; sperm created continuously  Process of reproduction  Launching of an egg from the woman’s ovaries into the fallopian tube, toward the uterus. Releases chemicals that signal/attract sperm  Conception: union of sperm and egg possible if sperm enters near the time egg is released. Once a sperm’s head penetrate the outer membrane of the eggs, a chemical reaction reals the membrane, preventing other sperm from entering  Zygote: fertilized egg with complete set of chromosomes o Developmental processes  Cell division (mitosis): after fertilization, zygote divides continuously, allowing the zygote to transform into a newborn with trillions of cells  Cell migration: newly formed cells move away from origin to other necessary places  Cell differentiation: at first, all stem cells are equivalent and interchangeable. After several cell divisions, cells start to specialize in structure and function  Differentiation depends on which genes are expressed in each cell/location  Cell death (apoptosis): selective death of cells; hand development  The influence of hormones: sexual differentiation. If androgens present, develop into male. If androgens absent, develop into a female. Source from male fetus o Early development  From fallopian tube to the womb, zygotes double cells 2x a day  Day 4: cells arranged into inner cell mass  Stage where identical twins originate, where inner cell mass splits in half  Fraternal twins happen when 2 eggs are released and both are fertilized  Week 1: zygote embeds itself in uterine lining and becomes dependent on the mother for sustenance  Cells start to differentiate: inner mass becomes embryo and the rest of the cells become amniotic sac (membrane with clear, watery fluid to allow the embryo to float), placenta (permits exchange of nutrients between fetus and mother through the umbilical cord, serves as defensive barrier against toxins, produces hormones like estrogen and progesterone), etc.  Week 2: inner cell mass folds itself into 3 layers  Top layer: nervous system, nail, teeth, inner ear, lens of the eyes, skin surface  Middle layer: muscles, bones, circulatory system, inner layers of skin, internal organs  Bottom layer: digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, glands  Then, U-shaped groove forms down center of top layer and fuse to create neural tube, developing into the brain and spinal cord o A summary of prenatal development  Cephalocaudal development: areas around the head develop faster than areas farther away from the head  4 weeks: embryo curved so head and tail almost touch; face gradually emerges, can see a small heart and arm bud  5 weeks: nose, mouth, and palate differentiate  8 weeks: nose and mouth almost fully formed  9 weeks: bulging forehead (rapid brain growth); eyes and ears form, internal organs present, but still developing. Sexual differentiation starts; ribs visible, fingers and toes emerge; umbilical cord attached  11 weeks: clear heart; basic adult structure; development of spines and ribs; major divisions of the brain  last 5 months: growth of lower body accelerates; movement increases  16 weeks: intense kicks; external genitalia substantially developed (male or female)  18 weeks: fine hair, sucking thumb  20 weeks: head down position; facial expressions present; decrease in fetal movement since sac is more cramped  28 weeks: brains and lungs sufficiently developed; eyes can open and move; auditory system functions and can hear/react to sounds  last 3 months: fetus grows dramatically, tripling its weight o fetal behavior  movement: sta
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