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Chapter 2

GEOL105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Seismic Moment, 32X, Mercalli Intensity Scale

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John Polk

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GEOLOGY 105-010
Hot Spots, Earthquakes, and Faults
Words to Know
Mantle Plume: Rising hot mantle
Earthquakes: Vibrations (mechanical waves) felt throughout the earth.
Fault: A fracture in the crust along which there has been movement (displacement).
Seismic: of enormous proportions or effect.
Strike: Displays the horizontal orientation.
Hot Spots
Not a part of Plate Tectonics
o They do play a big role in Volcanism.
Fixed relative to plates
Areas of extra uplift and heat from mantle
- Hawaiian Islands
- One underneath Iceland
Caused by movement along faults, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and impacts (from large
objects from outer space).
- Primarily due to movements around faults.
You need to have stress to move fault blocks.
If the movement is sudden, seismic waves are released.
Fault types are based on fault block movement
There are strikes on the fault block and the dip is used to find the angle of the fault
based on the strike.
Fault Block Names
Hanging wall: The side over the head
Footwall: The side that is under the feet
Normal Fault:
o Sides move vertically and away from each other
o Tension, stress away from the fault
o Hanging wall moves DOWN, footwall UP
Reverse/thrust Fault
o One side thrusts under the other
o Compression, stress towards the fault
o Hanging wall moves UP, footwall DOWN
Trasfor or strike-slip
o Crustal loks slide past eah other horizotally alog strike
o Sheer, stress parallel to fault
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