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Chapter 1-3

PSYC314 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-3: Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential, Myelin, Axon Terminal


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC314
Professor
Roth Eric
Chapter
1-3

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CHAPTER ONE
Dualism A belief in the dual nature of reality – Mind and body are separate… the body
is made of ordinary matter, the mind is not
Monism A belief that everything in the universe consists of matter and energy and that
the mind is a phenomenon produces by the workings of the nervous system
Descartes French Philosopher – speculates the roles of the mind and brain in the control
of behavior. Viewed the body as a machine. Coined term “reflexes”
Broca Paul Broca a French surgeon
Broca's area Damage done to it disrupted the person’s ability to speak
Charles Darwin Formulated the principles of Natural Selection and Evolution – believed that
characteristics of living organisms perform functions
Natural Selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to
survive and produce more offspring.
mutations Accidental changes in the chromosomes of a sperm or eggs that join together
and develop into new organism
selective advantage Mutations that are beneficial – the animal is more likely than other
members of its species to live long enough to reproduce and hence to pass
on its chromosomes to its offspring
evolution the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to
have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of
the earth.
Homo sapiens humans
Who was Alfed Russel
Wallace? The research of British naturalist who played a pivotal role in developing
the theory of natural selection.
What is "The origin of
species"? A book by Charles Darwin
CHAPTER TWO
neurons A nerve cell
CNS (Central Nervous) consists of the parts that are encased by the skull and spinal column
PNS (Peripheral Nervous) consists of the nerves and most of the sensory organs
nerves attached to the brain and the spinal cord – they are bundles of thousands of
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individual neurons, wrapped in a tough, protective membrane
sensory neurons Information (in the form of light, sound waves, odors, tastes, or contact with
objects) is gathered from the environment by specialized cells of the PNS
motor neurons controls muscles in the PNS
Neurons have the
following four structures: Soma, dendrites, axon & terminal buttons
soma (cell body) contains the nucleus and much of the machinery that provides for the
life processes of the cell
dendrite A branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron – receives
information from the terminal button
synapse A small space between the terminal buttons of the sending cell and a portion of
the somatic or dendritic membrane of the receiving cell
axon
A long, slender tube, often covered by a myelin sheath – the outer surface of the
axon carries information from the cell body to the terminal buttons and functions
much like an electrical cord carrying an electrical message from an outlet to an
appliance
terminal button Little knobs located at the end of the axon’s branches -
anatomy of a neuron
neurotransmitter A chemical secreted by the terminal buttons that excites or inhibits the receiving
cell and this helps to determine whether an action potential occurs in its axon
cell membrane Defines the boundary of the neuron – consists of a double layer of lipid (fat like)
molecules
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nucleus A round or oval structure found in the soma – enclosed by the nuclear membrane.
Nucleolus and chromosomes are found inside the nucleus
DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) Contains the organism’s genetic information (found in chromosomes)
genes Portions of chromosomes
exocytosis The secretion of a substance by a cell through means of vesicles; the process by
which neurotransmitters are secreted
glia Surround neurons and hold them in place, controlling their supply of nutrients and
some of the chemicals they need to exchange messages with other neurons
astrocyte “star cell” – provide physical support to neurons and clean up debris within the
brain
oligodendrocytes
Provide support to axons and produces the myelin sheath in CNS
myelin sheath Insulates most axons from one another – Made up of 80% lipid and 20% protein –
forms a tube around the axon
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