Computer architecture.pdf

56 Pages

Computer and Information Science and Engineering
Course Code
CDA 4102

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Computer Architecture Lecture 1 Digital logic circuits The digital computer is a digital system that performs various computational tasks Digital computers use the binary number system which has two digits 0 and 1 A binary digit is called a bit A computer system is sometimes subdivided into two functional entitieshardware and softwareThe hardware of the computer consists of all the electronic components and electromechanical devices that comprise the physical entity of the deviceComputer software consists of the instructions and data that the computer manipulates to perform various dataprocessing tasks Program A sequence of instructions for the computer is called a program The data that are manipulated by the program constitute the data baseComputer organization is concerned with the way the hardware components operate and the way they are connected together to form the computer system The various components are assumed to be in place and the task is to investigate the organizational structure to verify that the computer parts operate as intended Computer design is concerned with the hardware design of the computerOnce the computer specifications are formulated it is the task of the designer to develop hardware for the system Computer design is concerned with the determination of what hardware should be used and how the parts should be connected This aspect of computer hardware is sometimes referred to as computer implementation Computer architecture is concerned with the structure and behavior of the computer as seen by the user It includes the information formats the instruction set and techniques for addressing memory The architectural design of a computer system is concerned with the specifications of the various functional modules such as processors and memories and structuring them together into a computer system Logic Gates Gates are blocks of hardware that produce signals of binary 1 or 0 when input logic requirements are satisfied Boolean Algebra Boolean algebra is an algebra that deals with binary variables and logic operations The variables are designated by letters such as A B x and y The threeBoolean function basic logic operations are AND OR and complement A Boolean function can be expressed algebraically with binary variables the logic operation symbols parentheses and equal sign For a given value of the variables the Boolean function can be either 1 or 0 Consider for example the Boolean function Fxyz1Complement of a Function afABCABCACBFABACFigure 16 Two logic diagrams for the same Boolean functionComplement of a FunctionFrom the general DeMorgans theorem we can derive a simple procedure for obtaining the complement of an algebraic expression This is done by changing all OR operations to AND operations and all AND operations to OR operations and then complementing each individual letter variable As an example consider the following expression and its complementFABCDBDFABCDBD Combinational CircuitsA combinational circuit is a connected arrangement of logic gates with a set of inputs and outputs FullAdder Cxyxyxyz Realizing that xyxyxBy and including the expression for output S we obtain the two Boolean expressions for the fulladderSxyzCxyxyz 2Sequential Circuits A sequential circuit is an interconnection of flipflops and gatesDigital Components Integrated Circuits An integrated circuit IC abbreviated IC is a small silicon semiconductor crystal called a chip containing the electronic components for the digital gates Decoders A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from the n coded inputs to a maximum of 2 unique outputs Figure38 decoder Encoders An encoder is a digital circuit that performs the inverse operation of a decoder An encoder has 2 or less input lines and n output lines3
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