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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes: Sound Recording and Popular Music

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MMC 2604
Mariam Alkazemi

MMC2604 Chapter 3 Notes 9/11/13 Sound Recording and Popular Music  The Development of Sound Recording o From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium  In the 1850s, the French printer Eduard-Leon Scott de Martinville conducted the first experiments with sound recording  Moved sound recording into the development stage  In 1877, Thomas Edison had success playing back sound  Created the phonograph  Moved sound recording into the entrepreneurial stage  1886 Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented the graphophone which played back more durable wax cylinders  1887 Emile Berliner developed the gramophone which played records  Also developed a technique that enabled him to mass- produce his records, bringing sound recording into the mass medium stage  By early 1900s, record-playing phonographs were widely available for home use  1906 Victrolas  1925 introduction of electric record players  1930s sales declined dramatically  1940s polyvinyl records  1948 CBS introduced the long-playing record, with about 20 minutes of music on each side o From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital  The advent of magnetic audiotapes and tape players in the 1940s  By the mid-1960s, engineers had placed miniaturized reel-to- reel audiotape inside small plastic cassettes  Stereo permits the recording of two separate channels, or tracks, of sound  Biggest recording advancement came in the 1970s, when electrical engineer Thomas Stockham made the first digital audio recordings on standard computer equipment  Analog recording: captures the fluctuations of sound waves and stores those signals in a record’s grooves or a tape’s continuous stream of magnetized particles  Digital recording: translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information as numerical code  Compact discs (CDs) hit the market in 1983 o Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age  MP3s and File Sharing  The MP3 file format, developed in 1992, enables digital recordings to be compressed into smaller, more manageable files  By 1999, music files were widely available on the internet  In 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the music industry and declared free music file-swapping illegal  The Future: Music in the Stream, Music in the Cloud o The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio  By 1924 record sales dropped to only half of what they had been the previous year  The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), founded in 1914 to collect copyright fees for music publishers and writers, charged that radio was contributing to plummeting sales of records and sheet music  By 1925, ASCAP established music rights fees for radio  The recording and radio industries only began to cooperate with each other after television became popular in the early 1950s  U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock o Popular or pop music is music that appeals to either a wide cross section of the public or to sizable subdivisions within the larger public based on age, region, or ethnic background o The Rise of Pop Music  The sale of sheet music for piano and other instruments sprang from a section of Broadway in Manhattan known as Tin Pan Alley  As sheet music grew in popularity, jazz developed in New Orleans  The first pop vocalists of the twentieth century were products of the vaudeville circuit  Cover music: a song recorded or performed by another artist o Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay  Rock and roll was a blues slang term for “sex”  Considered the first “integrationist music”  Blues and R&B: The Foundation of Rock and Roll  The migration of southern blacks to northern cities helped spread popular music styles (in particular, blues music)  Blues-based urban black music began to be marketed under the name rhythm and blues, or R&B  Youth Culture Cements Rock and Roll’s Place  Young people sought escape from the menacing world created by adults  Racial Integration Expands Rock and Roll o Rock Muddies the Waters  High and Low Culture  Masculinity and Femininity  Rock and Roll was the first popular music genre to overtly confuse issues of sexual identity and orientation  The Country and the City  Rock and roll also blurred geographic borders between country and city, between the black urban rhythms of Memphis and the white country & western music of Nashville  Rockabilly  Rhythm and blues also spilled into rock and roll  The North and the South  Rock and roll combined northern and southern influences  The Sacred and the Secular  Many rock figures actually had close ties to religion o Battles in Rock and Roll  White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists  By the mid-1960s, black and white artists routinely recorded and performed one another’s original tunes  Payola scandals Tarnish Rock and Roll  Payola: the practice of record promoters paying deejays or radio programmers to play particular songs  Congressional hearings on radio payola began in December 1959  Fears of Corruption Lead to Censorship  Many assigned the blame for juvenile delinquency to
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