INR Chapter 2 Notes: History to 1914 & History since 1914

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Political Science
INR 2001
Paul D’ Anieri

INR2001 Chapter 2 Notes 8/27/13  History influences the present in international affairs in three ways: o History provides the background to events o History informs attitudes and provides motivation o It informs people’s understanding of the nature of international politics  The evolution of the international system has been dominated by the emergence and spread of the sovereign state system  The Birth of International Politics o Begins with Greek city-states in the fifth century BCE  City-state: a state that centers on a single city, rather than a larger territory or nation o Earliest known analyses of international politics: History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides o Peloponnesian War: a war between Athens and Sparta from 431 BCE to 404 BCE o Thucydides asserted that the war was caused by an imbalance of power between Athens and Sparta  From City-States to Nation-States o Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe was dominated by a feudal system  Feudal system; a political system in which individuals within a society have obligations based on class and no single ruler has absolute authority over a given territory o Different bases of power often clashed with one another  The Westphalian System o The modern sovereign state system is often called the Westphalian system: the system of sovereign states that was recognized by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 o State Sovereignty  The treaty recognized the existence of sovereign states  It defined the rights of sovereign states ‘  Sovereignty: the principle that states have complete authority over their own territory  Internally it means that no one within a state had the right to challenge the ruler’s power  Externally it means no one outside a territory had the right to say what should go on within that territory (known as the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other states)  Pluralism: the presence of a number of competing actors or ideas  State: an entity defined by a specific territory within which a single government has authority  Recognition: the acceptance by the international community of a state’s sovereignty over its territory o The Balance of Power System  Anarchy: a condition in which there is no central ruler  Balance of power: a system in which no single actor is dominant; also, the distribution of power in such a system, which is not necessarily equal  Law of war: a doctrine concerning when it is permissible to go to war and what means of conducting war are (and are not) permissible o Europe and the Rest of the World  China: the system varied between an empire with a single dominant ruler and a pluralistic system  The Middle East and North Africa: the rise of Islam in the seventh century CE led to the establishment of the Caliphate: a unified political area governed by Islam  India: feudal systems dominated, and no mutual recognition of sovereignty emerged  After the “discovery” of North and South America, Europe forcibly integrated the rest of the world into the modern state system o Napoleon and National Warfare  Nationalism and Democracy emerged from Napoleon’s rise  Nationalism: the doctrine that recognizes the nation as the primary unit of political allegiance o National self-determination: the doctrine that each state should consist of a single nation and each distinct nation should have its own state  Democracy: the doctrine that the entire population of a nation, rather than a small elite or a single monarch, should control government ‘  The crucial innovation in revolutionary France was the draft, known as the levée en masse o The Concert of Europe  The Concert of Europe: an agreement reached at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 in which major European powers pledged to cooperate to maintain peace and stability  The Concert of Europe marked the first attempt to put into practice the emerging liberal approach: a political approach focusing on the ability of actors to govern themselves without surrendering their liberty  Nationalism anthImperialism o The 19 century saw the rise of two phenomena: nationalism and imperialism  Imperialism: a situation in which one country controls another country or territory o Colonialism: a type of imperialism in which the dominating state takes direct control of a territory  The Road to World War I o Each major European power sought to tilt the balance of power in its own favor  This was manifested in the rush to colonize the southern hemisphere  Resulted also in a naval arms race between Germany and Great Britain o The Ottoman Empire was slowly losing control of territories o National independence movements plagued the Austro-Hungarian Empire o Russia sought to control Istanbul (then known as Constantinople) o France saw Russia as a potential ally o Great Britain was threatened by Germany’s growing power o By 1914, Europe was delicately balanced between two great alliances  The Triple Alliance: a pre-world war I agreement by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that if one state were to be attacked, the others would come to its aid  Triple Entente: a pre-World War I agreement by Britain, France, and Russia that if one state were to be attacked, the others would come to its aid o The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Austria issued an ultimatum insisting that Serbia submit to Austrian intervention or face war  Russia sided with Serbia  Germany sided with Austria  France sided with Russia  Britain backed its allies (France and Russia) o The Treaty of Versailles ended WWI  Set up the League of Nations  Redrew Germany’s boundaries  Required Germany to pay substantial reparations  Specified numerous limits on Germany’s ability to rearm in the coming years  Established several countries (Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia,
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