INR Chapter 9 Notes: The Use of Force

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Political Science
INR 2001
Paul D’ Anieri

INR2001 Chapter 9 Notes 10/20/13  Military Force and Its Purposes o Force: the use of violence or the threat of violence to achieve a political goal o The word force is a euphemism for the word violence o The threat of violence can also be considered the use of force o Coercive Diplomacy  Coercion: the use of a threat to change another actor’s behavior  Every negotiation entails an implied threat  Every threat is an offer to negotiate  Credibility: the ability and will to carry out a threat  States with larger military capabilities are likely to be in a better bargaining position  Will is hard to gauge o Defense versus Deterrence  Two ways in which the potential use of force is leveraged to prevent another country from attacking: defense and deterrence  States shift their reliance on defense versus deterrence depending on the technology and tactics available to them and their perceived power relative to states they see as potential adversaries  The simplest way to provide security is to be able to repel an attack  An alternative to defense is deterrence: a policy aimed at convincing a potential opponent not to attack by raising the costs of attack so that they are higher than the perceived benefits  Defense and deterrence strategies have often overlapped in history o The Security Dilemma  Security dilemma: the difficult choice faced by states in anarchy between arming, which risks provoking a response from others, and not arming, which risks remaining vulnerable  Military capability is seen by others as a threat even if no threat is ever stated  Actors compete not only in the quantity of weapons they amass, but in the technological sophistication of those weapons and the ways they are used  Contemporary Competition for Military Advan
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