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Chapter 2

PSB 3002 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Resting Potential, Peripheral Nervous System, Endoplasmic Reticulum


Department
Psychobiology
Course Code
PSB 3002
Professor
Bethany Stennett
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2
a) Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System-Cells of the Nervous System
Sensory neurons: A neuron that detects changes in the external/internal environment
and sends information about these changes to the CNS
Motor neuron: a neuron located within the CNS that controls the contraction of a
muscle/the secretion of a gland
Interneuron: a neuron located entirely within the CNS
Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System: nerves and sensory organs
4 primary parts of a neuron:
o Dendrites
o Soma
o Axon- where the action potential travels down
o Terminal buttons- junctions between these and the somatic/dendritic
membrane of another neuron can be used for communication
When an action potential travels down an axon, the TB secrete either an
excitatory/inhibitory chemical on the neurons. This leads to muscle contractions.
The cytoplasm of neurons contains protein molecules and a nucleus, which generates
ribosomes, contains the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and other important
structures
Lysosomes: have enzymes that destroy waste
Mitochondria: where most chemical reactions take place
In the CNS...astrocytes help support, nourish, regulate, and remove waste
o Microglia are phagocytes that aid the immune system
o Oligodendrocytes myelinate the axon
I the PNS…Schwa cells eliate ad support the ao
The blood brain barrier in the CNS regulate the amount of substances that can pass
through
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