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Chapter 13

PSB 3002 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Long-Term Potentiation, Dentate Gyrus, Dendritic Spine

Course Code
PSB 3002
Bethany Stennett

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Chapter 13
a. Learning and Memory- The Nature of Learning
Learning can change the way we perceive, act, think and feel
o Changes in the nervous system, in the circuits responsible for perception, in those
responsible for the control of movement, and connecting both
o Perceptual learning: perceptual system changes that allow us to recognize stimuli so we
can appropriately respond to them
o Stimulus-Response Learning: connections between perceptual and motor systems
Classical conditioning: neutral stimulus followed by unconditional stimulus that
elicits an unconditional response. Neutral stimulus becomes a conditional
stimulus, it now elicits the response by itself, which we refer to as the condition
Instrumental conditioning: response followed by a reinforcing stimulus.
Reinforcing stimulus increases the likelihood that the other stimuli that were
present when the response was made will evoke the response.
o Motor Learning: primarily involves changes within neural circuits that control
movement. Is guided by sensory stimuli and is a form of stimulus-response learning.
o Relational learning: ability to recognize objects through more than one sensory
modality, to recognize the relative location of objects in the environment, and to
remember the sequence in which events occurred during particular episodes
b. Learning and Memory- Synaptic Plasticity: Long Term Potentiation and Long Term Depression
Circuit of neurons pass from entorhinal cortex through the hippocampal formation, where long-
term potentiation occurs
High-frequency stimulation of the axons strengthens synapses and increases size of EPSPs in the
dendritic spines of the postsynaptic neurons
When weak synapses are strengthened by the action of strong ones, associative long-term
potentiation occurs
In CA1 and dentate gyrus, NMDA receptors play a role in LTP
o Control calcium channels and open them when the membrane is depolarized
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