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Chapter 3

PSY 2012 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Brain Death, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Magnetoencephalography

Course Code
PSY 2012
Nicole Renee Dorey

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Cha pte r 3
Lecture 1: The Bra in, Neuron a nd the Nervous S ys te m
How do we know the mind is in the bra in?
- blow to the hea d
- ps ychoa ctive s ubs ta nce s
- bra in s cans
Nervous s yste m
- if you look a t your bra in a s a s upe rcomputer, tha n you s hould cons ide r your ne rvous system
as the control s ys te m.
- it coordinates a ll of your body’s a ctions and re actions.
- Two pa rts :
- Centra l nervous s yste m: the bra in a nd s pinal cord
- Periphe ra l ne rvous s ys tem: a ll othe r nerves
- autonomic ne rvous s ystem
- sympa the tic: fight or flight
- pa ra s ympathetic: re st or dige s t
- soma tic nervous s ystem
Spe cific pa rts of the Nervous s yste m
- Two ma in type s of ce lls :
- Nerve ce lls (ne urons)
- glia l cells (ne uroglia)
- colle ct input on de ndrite s, if the input is sufficie nt the n the y s e nd a n action pote ntia l down the
axon, where it ca n be influe nced by other ne urons.
- ma ny differe nt type s of ne urons but the y a ll ha ve s tructura l a nd functiona l cha ra cteris tics in
- de ndrite s , s oma , a xon, mye lin, te rmina l e nding
- An a ction potentia l is a n a ll or nothing e le ctro-event.
How many ne urons do we ha ve
- about one hundre d billion
- a lot of diffe re nt inte rconne ctions
How do ne urons communicate
- Syna pse
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Le cture 2: The Brains pt.2
Methods for s tudying the bra in
- clinica l ca s e s tudy
- expe rimenta l interventions
- ele ctora l re cordings (EEG)
- bra in-imaging te chniques
- CAT s ca n
- PET sca n: vis ual dis pla y of bra in a ctivity, a s me a s ure d by the amount of glucose being
us e d.
- fMRI: me asure d natura l radio freque ncy coming out of bra in.
Regions of the bra in
- the bra ins te m: acts like a s e cre ta ry by s orting a nd de livering the millions of me ss age s s e nt
be tween the bra in a nd the body.
- me dulla : involunta ry functions (bre a thing, s wallowing, he art rate)
- pons a nd re ticula r formation: both deal with s le e ping a nd arous a l, but reticula r formation
als o de a ls with atte ntion
- ce re bellum: motor coordination
The limbic s yste m
- Tha la mus: s ens ory re la y s tation
- Amygdala : fe ar, ange r and aggre ssion
- Hippocampus: memory forma tion
- Hypothala mus : regula te s body te mpe ra ture , a nd a utonomic ne rvous s ystem.
Corte x: I
- Fronta l lobe : attention, executive function, control
- Partial lobe: soma tic s ens ory, body s e ns e , s e ns a tion a nd pe rception
- Temporal lobe : a uditory
- Occipita l lobe : vis ion
Corte x:II
- Primary motor corte x: controls diffe re nt pa rts of body
- Primary se ns ory cortex: s e ns a tions from differe nt parts of body
- Primary visua l corte x: vis ua l
- Wernicke’s area (le ft hemis phere ): pe rception of s peech
- Broca’s Are a (left he misphe re ): s poken s pe e ch
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- Auditory a ssocia tion
Le cture 3: S plit Bra in
Hande dness
- 90% are right-ha nde d
Split brain
- 1% of the world has e pile ps y
- cut the coprus callous
- la nguage come s from the le ft s ide .
Te xtbook:
Neurons : The Brain’s Communica tors
- Neurons : ne rve ce lls s pe cia lize d for communica tion with ea ch othe r.
- The ce ll body (soma ): ce ntral re gion of the ne uron.
- ma nufa ctures ne w ce ll compone nts , which cons ist of s ma ll a nd la rge mole cule s.
- conta ins the nucle us whe re prote ins are manufa cture s
- Dendrite s : portion of ne urons tha t re ceive s igna ls .
- spre a d out a nd “listen in” on conversations from neighboring ne urons a nd pa ss them on to
the cell body.
- Axons : portion of ne urons that s ends s ignals .
- Syna ptic vesicle s : s phe rical s a c conta ining ne urotra ns mitte rs.
- tra vel the full le ngth of the a xon on the ir way to a knoblike structure a t its far e n ca lle d the
axon te rmina l.
- - when the syna ptic vesicle re a ches the e nd of its journey a t the a xon te rmina l, it burs ts,
re le asing ne urotra nsmitters.
- Neurotra ns mitte rs : chemica l me s s e nger s pe cia lize d for communication from ne uron to
ne uron.
- Once rele a s ed from the s yna ptic vesicle , ne urotrans mitte rs e nte r the s yna pse.
- Syna pse: a tiny fluid-filled s pa ce between ne urons through which ne urotransmitters tra vel.
- The s yna ps e consis ts of a s ynaptic cleft: a ga p into which ne urotra nsmitte rs a re re le ase d
from the a xon te rmina l.
Glia l Ce lls
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