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Chapter 1.3

BIOL 1103 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.3: Royal Dutch Shell, Maltose, Galactose


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1103
Professor
Brickman
Chapter
1.3

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Bio Chapter 1.3
Macromolecules- large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic
molecules
Biological macromolecules- organic and contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
phosphorous, and sulfur
Carbon
Carbon bonding- 4 electrons in outer shell
-hydrogen atoms can be replaced with another carbon atom covalently bonded to the
first carbon atom
-carbon atom may bond with atoms of other elements
-the molecules may also form rings
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates- provide energy through glucose
- Represented by CH2O
- 3 subtypes
omonosaccharides: simple sugars
glucose, galactose, fructose
odisaccharides: when 2 monosaccharides undergo a dehydration
reaction
lactose, maltose, sucrose
opolysaccharides: long chain of monosaccharides linked by covalent
bonds
may or may not be branched
starch: stored form of sugars in plants
glycogen: storage form of glucose in humans and other
vertebrates
cellulose: abundant natural biopolymers
Lipids
Lipids- diverse group of compounds that are united by a common feature
- hydrophobic because they are nonpolar
- provide insulation for plants and build hormones
ofat molecule
2 main components are glycerol and fatty acids
glycerol- organic compound with 3 carbon atoms
triglycerides- have 3 fatty acids
saturated fatty acid: the number of hydrogen atoms attached to
the carbon skeleton is maxed
unsaturated fatty acid: hydrocarbon chain; contains a double
bond
oils
Lipids and molecules
Triglyceride: glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Phospholipids: glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group
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