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Chapter 2

ECOL 3505H Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Red Queen Hypothesis, Genotype Frequency, Allele Frequency

Course Code
ECOL 3505H
Ford Ballantyne

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ECOL3500 – Textbook Summary
CHAPTER 2: Adaptation and Evolution
Fitness – an organism’s relative ability to survive and reproduce
Adaptation – a trait that improves the fitness of the organism in a specific environment
Natural selection – individuals with inherited traits that increase their reproductive output or survival
will increase in frequency in the population relative to other competing individuals
Phenotype – the characteristic morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism
Genotype – the genetic makeup of the individual that, with the environment, determines the phenotype
Gene – a sequence of DNA that codes for the amino acid sequence that constitutes a specific protein
Mutation – a random change in the DNA sequence of a gene
Population genetics – a field of genetics that analyzes the dynamics of genes in an entire population
Gene pool - the sum total of all alleles in a population
Allele frequencies – the proportion each allele represents in the gene pool
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium – a mathematical representation of the genotype frequencies of a
population in which the allele and genotype frequencies are not changing; there is no evolution
p2 + 2pq + q2
Genetic drift – random changes in allele frequencies
Gene flow – net movement of alleles to/from a population
Mutation pressure – changes in allele frequency due to origin of new alleles in the population
Selection coefficient(s) – the proportion of a genotype that is not represented in the next generation bc
of death or reproductive failure
Directional selection – a form of selection in which one tail of the phenotypic bell curve is favored
Stabilizing selection – a form of selection in which the central portion of the phenotypic bell curve is
Evolutionary trade-offs – the idea that many traits that confer a fitness advantage with respect to one
aspect of the environment can also have a fitness cost relative to another
Disruptive selection – a form of selection in which the two tails of the phenotypic bell curve are favored
Non-Darwinian evolution – genetic drift
Effective Population size (Ne) – The subset of the total population that mates at random
Phenotypic plasticity – the ability of an organism to produce different phenotypes in different
Heritability – a measure of the proportion of the phenotypic variation for a traits that is determined by
additive effects of its genes
Ecotype – a genetically distinct population that is adapted to local environmental condition
Red Queen Hypothesis – the idea that he environment changes faster than adaptations can arise by
natural selection
Adaptive landscape – a graphical representation of the fitnesses associated with different genotypes in a
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