AFP- CH 6.docx

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International Affairs
INTL 4250
Loch K Johnson

Chapter 6 - American Foreign Policy in a Fractured World • AFractured World o despite new countries making attempt at democracy, the US found itself at wars in the Middle East and SouthwestAsia o rise in ethnic and tribal disputes in Yugoslavia, Somalia, Czechoslovakia and Rwanda • ANew World Disorder o  George H.W. Bush - "ANew World Order"  a time of global peace that would replace the strife that darkened the era of the Cold War  this was not the case o Disintegration of the Soviet Union  the 2nd Soviet Revolution from 1989-1991, overthrew Communism  Mikhail S. Gorbachev was chosen as General Secretary of the Politburo  he introduced glasnost (more openness in government affairs) and perestroika (reduction in governments grip on economy)  made democracy and free enterprise more likely  when Gorabchev was going to give 15 Soviet states autonomy, he was arrested by State Committe  Boris Yelstin was elected President  Russian riots and protestors against Gorbachevs incarceration  this uprising led to the collapse of the USSR  Gorbachev was restored as the Soviet leader  Yelstin came across more bodly and outward for democracy, becoming the national hero and figurehead in Russia  15 former USSR republics became members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) for military and economic benefits --> Estonia would be the first to Join NATO in 1994  there were ethnic conflicts in Modlva, Georgia,Armenia,  the debate in Washington at the time was how much financial aid the US should supply  The Grand Bargain  a school of thought in the US that agreed with the Germans that a major infusion of Western capital and know-how, coupled with insistence that the former Soviet Republics follow Western recommendations on how to revamp thier economies  only way to avoid a backslide into Communism or civil war  The Nunn-LugarAct  Congressional funding of $1billion to improve the security of Russian nuclear warheads and related WMD materials  this was done out of fear that "loose nukes" may fall into the wrong hands  StrategicArms Reduction Talks I (1991)  authorized dramatic cutbacks in the number of strategic warheads that both the US and Russia had by 2/3  Yelstin then sold arms to China and India  also sold submarine to Iran, MIGs and bombers to Syria, and weapons to North Korea and Libya  US also sold arms to Taiwan  Political and economic instability in Russia, finally began stabilizaing over the next decade  Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (2002)  cut US and Russian strategic nuclear arsenal to the lowest total in decades at about 2000 each  Putin backed the US in the war on terror, but had trade relations with IRan and North Korea  Putin moved into the Prime Minister position when his term expired, but still maintained control, then won again in 2012  push of less democracy (Gorbachev remains (hopeful)  Obama and Putin have not had great relations  soured by Russia grantin asylum to Snowden o Bllodbath in the Balkans  Yugoslavian civil war  rise of nationalism in Central Europe, the Balkans, and former USSR  populist nationalism - people within the same nation who do not eem to agree with some of the populsit and naitonalism ideology are assigned the status of minorities, suggesting that they cannot belong with the authentic body of the national people  Bosnian War  attack against Croatia in 1992  ethnic cleansing - a policy of attacks against rival groups with the intent of ridding the area of them  included murders and mass rape  mostly perpatrated by the Serbs against all non- Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina  US public turned to the goverment for intervention  UN issued an arms embargo in 1991 against all Yugoslavian territoy (didnt make sense, Serbs were already well armed)  UN negotiators, administrators, and negotiators entered in 1992  US entered in 1993  did not allow US troops to enter  only food aid and clothing into Bosnia  air sorties in 1994  US brokered the Dayton PeaceAccords in 1995 among Croats, Bosnian Muslims, and Serbs  diplomatic talks that resulted in a division of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines  NATO enforced  Implementation Force  Stabilization Force  1998 Kosovo War  Albanian muslims pushed for autonomy and eventually took up arms against Serbian soldiers and police stationed in the province.  Serbian leader Milosevic again undleashed the forces of repression and ethnic cleansing  Clinton refused to send US ground forces  refugees spilled intoAlbania, MAcedonia, and Montenegro upsetting stability o Fusion in Western Europe  German reunification in 1990 when East and West Germany reunited  consolidated NATO power in Germany  Maastricht Treaty (Treaty of European Union - 1992  12 nations of the European Community pledged a lasting economic and political European Union  Britain and Denmark did not join, but most did  fears that weaker economies like Greece seemed like a burden  in 2012, the Greek economy neared collapse and the EU and seemed like it may fall, at the last minute the EU followed Germany's lead and bailed out Greece with financial loans o Desert Storm  1991 decision by President George HW Bush to repel with massive US-led military force an IRaqi invasion into neighboring Kuwait (First Persian Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm)  was about protecting Kuwait sovereignty, but more about maintaining US and Western access to ME oil  fear that former US ally, Saddam Hussein would topple Saudi Arabian oil fields, pushing most ME oil under his control  US advanced weaponry toppled the 4th largest military in the world in 6-short weeks  148 americans dies (1/4 by friendly fire)  Congress had supported HW Bush in this battle  ordered Iraq to destroy its NBCR weapons programs  Saddam continued to be a probelm for the West o Chaos in Somalia  Operation Restore Hope  1992, US sent troops into Somalia to provide protection for the humanitarian relief efforts of the UN - the largest purely humanitarian intervention abroad inAmerica's history  was a great triumph forAFP  peace did not last - rise of extremism, terrorism and warlord theft of UN food supplies  Black Hawk Down incident in 1993 pulled US forces out of Somalia • Wolves in the Woods o  HW Bush: "despite the New World Order, there are still wolves in the woods" o Weapons Proliferation  NBC Weapons  Russian warheads being secured was the highest worry  North Korea refused IAEA inspection in 1993, fearing a weapons program was going on o Counternarcotics  HW Bush "public enemy number 1"  estimated that 70% of drugs get through US borders o Immigration  a third of 35 million immigrants in 2007 were illigeal  some welcome them as workers, others are scared of what they may bring in  controversial building of a wall between Mexico and the US o The Micro-States  the smaller nations of the world that can be significant to US AFP and the need to know what is happening in them  Reagan admin, invasion of Grenada in 1983 to subdue an alleged communist threat  Panama weapons purchases  NorthAfrica andArab spring in Egypt and Syria  North American Free TradeAgreement  improving trade ties with the US, Canada, and Mexico  reduced commercial barriers and shipping costs  promise of greater prosperity  OsloAccords (1993)  the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) renounced terrorism and its call for destruciton of Israel in return for Israel's promise to withdraw from the GAza strip and the West Bank town of Jericho  Operation Uphold Democracy (1994)  US military intervention in Haiti was necessary to stem the flow of refugees and to resotre order on the poverty- stricken island  Rwanda genocide  Bad US response  Clinton administration did not intervene and 800000 were slaughtered in tribal warfare before the assistance of the US, UN and other nations  Other Transnational Challenges  National Security Review No. 29 (NSR-29)  directedAmerica;s secret agencies to compile the most exhaustive list of intelligence prioritie
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