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Chapter 6-8

VPHY 3100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6-8: Extracellular Fluid, Integrin, Elastin


Department
Physiology and Pharmacology
Course Code
VPHY 3100
Professor
Li
Chapter
6-8

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VPHY Notes
Ch 6 (Interactions between cells and the extracellular environment)
1. Water content of the body is split into what two compartments?
a. Intracellular compartment (67%)27-30L
b. Extracellular compartment (33%) 14-16.5L
i. 20% vascular fluid, blood plasma3.0-3.5L
ii. 80% as interstitial fluid 11-13L (non-vascular tissue fluid)
1. makes up the tissue fluid, found in the extracellular matrix
2. What two things is the cytoplasm (space between nucleus and plasma membrane) made up of?
a. Cytosol
i. Water based portion
ii. Fluid organelles reside in this
b. Organelles
i. Carry out cellular function
3. What function does the cell membrane serve?
a. Acts as a physical barrier between the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid (ECF)
4. Living organisms are -% water by weight?
a. 70%
Extracellular environment
o Includes everything that lies outside of cells
o ECM (extracellular matrix)
Gel-like hydrated material
“Ground substance”amorphous gel-like substance surrounding cells
Contains glycoproteins (proteins with side chains of sugars) such as integrins
o Integrinsclass of glycoproteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within a cell,
through its plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix
o Glue between cells and the extracellular matrix
o Join intracellular to extracellular compartments (Integrins help with signal relay)
Contains Protein fibers
Collagenmain structural protein in extracellular space
Elastin lets tissues snap back to their original state after being stretched
Selective permeability
Solutions and Diffusion
o Biological systems exist within aqueous solutions
Solvent= water
Solute= stuff dissolved in water
o Concentration
Tells us the amount of solute relative to the amount of solution/solvent
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Concentration differences (gradients) lead to downhill net diffusion of solute from a region of
higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Gradient is a driving force
Net diffusion this means that most is one direction but some still exists in the other
direction
o Simple Diffusion
Diffusional driving force
Proportional to the concentration gradient
The degree to which a substance will diffuse across a lipid bilayer is dependent on the
selective permeability of that membrane
Simple diffusion
Non-carrier mediated, “downhill” movement of some molecules across a cell membrane
o Downhill-down the concentration gradient
o Osmosis
Net diffusion of water (solvent) across a membrane from regions of higher water concentration to
lower [H2O]
Requirements
Membrane must be selectively permeable to water
Concentration gradient for the solute must exist across the membrane
Solute must be osmotically active (membrane impermeable to solute)
When water moves from high to low concentration (down gradient) a moveable partition
will move the opposite direction of movement to account for the increase in volume
Net movement of water is towards the side with the most solute to even it out
o Osmotic Pressure
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Force needed to counteract osmosis
Increased solute concentrations increase the osmotic pressure of the solution
Bar prevents volume change of water so adding more solute to one side would pull water to it
more strongly and lead to a higher osmotic pressure
o Concentration Units
Concentrationamount of solute relative to the amount of solution or solvent
Molarity (M)
o 1 M soln = (1 mol solute)/ (1 L soln)
o 1 mole of glucose (180g) per liter solution= 1 molar
Molality (m)
o 1 m soln = (1 mol solute)/ (1 kg solvent)
o 1 mole (180 grams glucose) per kilogram water= 1 molal
Osmolality (Osm)
o Total molality of solution= sum of molalities of all solutes present
One mole (mol) = 6.02E23 units
o Tonicity
Total concentration of solutes
Describes effect of a solution on the osmotic movement of water
Differences in tonicity lead to osmotic movements of water
Isotonic
o 2 solutions have same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane
o Water can move across membrane can move across membrane freely without
changing the concentration of solutes on either side
o Out is balanced by in
Hypotonic
o Solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution
o Has less solute and more water than another solution
o Osmotically active
Cells can burst in this scenario (hemolysis)
Hypertonic
o Solution where the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is
greater than that of another solution
o More solute, less water
o Ex: Seawater
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