TXMI 2100 Chapter test 2: TXMI 2100 TEST TWO BOOK NOTES
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Department
Textiles, Merchandising and Interiors
Course
TXMI 2100
Professor
Bhat
Semester
Spring

Description
TXMI 2100 TEST TWO NOTES How to create a fabric: 1. From solution 2. From fibers 3. From yarns CHAPTER 7: YARN FORMATION: Drawing-process of stretching manufactured filaments to increase strength; blending and combining several carded slivers into one drawn sliver Sliver-untwisted strand of somewhat parallel fibers Spinning-production of manufactured fibers; process of making yarn from staple Yarn-a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or materials in a form that can be used to make a fabric 1. Filament yarns a. Monofilament yarn-one fiber, usually drawn or stretched to inc length b. Multifilament yarn-all fibers for one yarn are extruded at once-twisted to make cohesive i. Processed further by the fiber manufacturer, throwsters 2. Textured filament yarns Multifilament yarn-all fibers for one yarn are extruded at once How to texture yarn: 1. False twist-yarn is twisted, heated, and then untwisted so it forms a helical coil 2. Knife edge/edge crimping-heated filaments are drawn over an edge, which flattens one side of the filaments and causes the yarn to curl 3. Gear crimping-sawtooth crimp is created when yarn passes through the teeth of two heated gears 4. Stuffer box-filament yarns are pushed into one end of a small heated box until they bend a. Produces a large inc in volume 5. Air jet-high velocity air or steam is used to distort some of the fibers in a yarn so that they loop or curl 6. Knit-deknit process-yarn is knitted into a thin tube, heat set, and unraveled Classifying filament yarns-regular/conventional and bulk • Bulk yarns-greater covering power and volume • BCF-bulk continuous fibers o Bulky, crimped, and texture o Cross sectional shape, natural crimp, and resilience make up their bulk o Crimped yarns are used when stretch is needed o Textured yarns-loopy, high bulk and stretch yarns Staple yarn formation-created through spinning 1. Cotton: a. Opening, cleaning, and blending-bales are opened and cotton fibers are loosened and cleaned b. Carding/combing-during carding, wires separate and align fibers to form a thin web. Combing further aligns the fibers and makes them more parallel. Creates a yarn that is smoother, finer, and more expensive than carded yarn. c. Drawing-slivers are combined and passed through a series of smooth drums revolving at different speeds. Increases yarn uniformity d. Spinning/twisting-adds twist necessary to make a yarn i. Ring spinning-fibers are twisted and wound onto a bobbin in one operation. ii. Open end spinning-high speed alternative to ring spinning. Sliver is broken up and fibers are fed rapidly into a turning roter where force deposits them in a v shaped groove. 2. Worsted-smoother, stronger, and twisted tighter than wollen yarns 3. Woolen-weak and have poor abrasion resistance. Used to manufacture shorter wool fibers Twisting: depends on what way you twist • Z twist-counter clock wise-lower left to upper right • S twist-clockwise-upper left to lower right -TPI/TPM-twists per inch/twists per meter. • Not enough-too loose • Too much-no stretch • Inc twist, inc strength • Simple yarns-made into flat, smooth fabrics • Single-least expensive to produce. Will separate into individual fibers if untwisted • Ply-two or more single yarns twisted together, o For balance, combine s and z twists o When you are turning you don’t want to remove the twist o When it is tightly packed, moisture can’t get through it o Two yarns twisted together • Cord-yarns of two or more plies twisted together. Novelty yarns-add textural interest and beauty to fabrics. something non-uniform-essentially changing the texture • Instead of smooth and twisted, you can produce intentionally thick and thin yarn • Or cork screw/crimp-high amount of twists • Different textures • Specialty fabrics and applications. • Slub yarn-thick and thin yarn • Leaving the seed in-produces special effect • Bouche • Chenille • Spot/knop yarn New yarn formation methods: • Created directly from polymers, eliminating fiber and traditional yarn formation steps o Slitting films o Split dilm o Yarn wrappings o Network yarns are still in experimental stage Split films-twines-drawing or stretching polymer film Slit film- films of polymers are extruded, cooled, and slit into narrow tapes. Yarn wrapping-used for filament and staples-yarns can be created by wrapping a bundle of fibers with filament or staple fibers • Fascinated yarns-soluble fibers • Air jet • Hollow spindle • Core spinning Network yarns-made by drawing a foamed polymer • Bulky but lacks strength Blending- • Done during-spinning, yarn formation, weaving or knitting-combination fabrics • Done before carding • Combed cotton • Blending-after you open and clean, you add other fibers. Mixing the fibers before the process. Mixing fibers makes blended yarn • Blends are important because o Aesthetics o Function o Costs Yarn size • Yarns are sold by weight • Count system • Indirect- higher the count, the finer the yarn o Cotton count o Woolen count o Linen count o Worsted count o Sold in the form of hank o Metric yarn count-number of 1,000 meter hanks in 1 kilogram • Direct o Denier, tex, decitex o Denier-mass in grams per 9,000 meters o Tex-mass in grams per 1,000 meters o Decitex- mass in grams per 10,000 meters CHAPTER 8: WOVEN FABRICS Face-front; folded on inside bolt of fabric Back-reverse Warp yarns-run vertically in garments or draperies. Interlace at right angles to form woven fabrics o Places on loom before weaving-need to be strong o Thinner and more tightly twisted than filling yarns Filling yarns-also interlace at right angles o Weft yarns-run the width of the fabric and horizontally across garments o Picks Thread count-number of yarns in one square inch of fabric o Determined on greige goods o Higher indicates strength and quality o Better abrasion resistence o Fabric count o Fabric density o Expressed numerically Balanced fabric-same number of yarns in the warp and filling fabric weight-indicates quality. Grain-relationship between warp and filling yarns o Fabric is on grain-warp yarns are parallel and perpendicular to filling yarns o Filing yarns are skewed-filling yarns slant in a straight line o Filling yarns are bowed-filling yarns curve Weaving-interlacing warp and filling yarns on a loom Primary: 1. Warp yarns placed on warp beam 2. Shedding-heddles/shed open and separate yarn into layers. Filling yarn is inserted into shed. Harness raises and lowers different warp yarns. 3. Beating-reed pushed filling yarn into completed cloth and push it to the pick. Secondary: 1. Letting off-taking off fresh yarn and collecting the fabric a. Essential for continuation of fabric Types of looms: 1. Conventional/fly shuttle looms. take shuttle with small spindle and has to be replaced. Noisy and slower then shuttle-less looms. 2. Shuttle-less looms-quieter and operate faster. Filling yarn is measured and cut before inserting it into the shed. Wooden box no longer carries yarn back and forth-pull yarn out and insert only yarn that is needed a. Air jet b. Projectile looms c. Rapier looms d. Water-jet looms. Advantages of shutterless looms: o Shed is smaller o Faster o Less strain on the yarn Other types of looms: o Double-width-two warp beams-two widths can be woven at same time o Multiphase loom o Triaxial loom Selvages-run parallel to the warp yarns and form the lengthwise edges of the woven fabrics 1. Normal 2. Fringed 3. Tucked 4. Leno Basic weaves: 1. Plain weave-simplest form of weaving a. A filling yarn is passed over and under one warp yarn at a time across tbe width of fabric b. Checkerboard pattern c. Less expensive to produce d. Ideal for printed designs and surface manipulations e. Characteristics: i. Wear well ii. Ravel less iii. Wrinkle more iv. Less absorbent f. Types of plain weaves i. Ribbed-unbalanced-noticeable lines on surface ii. Basket weave-changes fabric texture iii. Seersucker-created through slack tension 2. Twill weave-diagonal lines on fabric surface. Wales are created by the insertion of filling yarn over TWO warp yarns and under ONE warp yarn. a. Float-yarn that crosses more than one yarn at a time b. Looks like a series of steps c. Regular twill-45 degree angle d. Reclining twill-less than 45 degrees e. Steep twill-more than 45 degrees f. Right hand twill-twill lines run from lower left to upper right-z g. Left hand twill-twill lines run from upper left to lower right-s h. Even sided twill-equal number of warp and filling yarns are exposed on both sides of fabric i. Warp faced twill-warp yarns predominate face j. Filling face twill-filling yarns predominate face k. Characteristics: i. Strong ii. Good abrasion resistance iii. Softer iv. More pliable v. Recover better from wrinkles vi. Drape well vii. Show less soil viii. Wale usually dominates face-luster 3. Satin weave-fabric is created by allowing the warp or filling yarns to float over 4 more more warp/filling yarns a. Spaced regularly to appear smooth b. Filament yarns with low twist c. Luster d. High thread counts e. Characteristics: i. Susceptible to snagging ii. Poor abrasion resistance iii. Good body iv. Wind repellent v. More pliable vi. Resistant to wrinkling vii. Sheds soil easily f. Sateen fabric-made from spun yarns i. Less lustrous, more durable ii. Warp faced are stronger and heavier Special Weaves: 1. Dobby weave-small geometric patterns 2. Leno weave-pairs of warp yarns that twist around filling yarns a. Selvage 3. Jacquard weave-beautifully patterned a. Not durable b. Long floats of yarn c. Each individual thread can be controlled d. Produce complicated and desired fabrics 4. Extra yarn weave- a. Spot b. Swivel c. Lappet Woven pile weaves- o Pile-raised or cut loops on surface of fabric
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