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Chapter 15

BIOL 1344 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Skeletal Muscle, Histology, Endoneurium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1344
Professor
Wayne Chad
Chapter
15

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Lab 15: Nervous System Histology
Types of Neurons
- Multipolar
o 2 or more dendrites
o single axon
o most common type
o motor neurons to skeletal muscle
- Bipolar
o 2 distinct processes
o one with dendrites at its end
o the other is the axon
o cell body separates the two
o not very common
o found in special sense organs like eye
- unipolar
o axon and dendrites are fused
o cell body is off to one side
o form most sensory neurons in PNS
o dendrites arise from initial segment
o remainder of process is considered axon
Structure of Neuron
- Axon
o Single process from cell body

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o May branch into collateral axons
o Carries impulse away from cell body
o Terminates in axon terminals
- Nissl bodies
o Dark areas within cell body
o Composed of rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Dendrites
o Branches processes at proximal end extending from cell body
o Form synapses with axon terminals of other neurons
o Stimulated by preceding cell
o Conducts impulse to cell body
- Cell Body
o Also called soma
o Contains nucleus and organelles
o Receives impulse from dendrites
o Conducts impulse to axon
- Schwann cell
o Neuroglial cell of the peripheral nervous system
o Wraps around axon like a jelly roll
o Produces myelin sheath
- Nodes of Ranvier
o Gaps in myelin sheath
o Nerve impulses moves down axon from node to node
- Axon terminals
o Branched distal end of axon
o Forms synapses with dendrites of next cell or neuromuscular junction
o Stores neurotransmitters
- Myelin sheath
o Axon covering of some peripheral neurons
o Composed of lipoprotein molecules within schwann cells
o Outer layer is called neurilemmal
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Neuroglial Cells
- CNS
o Oligodendrocytes
Located in brain and spinal cord
Forms myelin sheath
o Microglial cells
Located in brain and spinal cord
Moves like an amoeba
Phagocytizes invading microorganisms and dead nervous tissue cells
o Astrocytes
Located in brain and spinal cord
Anchors neurons to capillaries
Forms part of blood-brain barrier
Regulates chemical environment
o Ependymal cells
Line the ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord
Assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring CSF
- PNS
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