PS 101-Chapter 6
Mass Media: Sourced that provide information to the average citizen, such as
newspapers, television networks, radio stations, and Web sites.
Penny Press: Newspapers sold for one cent in the 1830s, when more efficient
printing presses made reduced-price newspapers available to a larger segment
of the population.
Wire service:An organization that gathers news and sells it to other media
outlets. The invention of the telegraph in the early 1800s made this type of
Yellow Journalism:Astyle of newspaper popular in the late 1800s that
featured sensationalized stories, bold headlines, and illustrations to increase
Investigative Journalists: Reporters who dig deeply into a particular topic of
public concern, often targeting government failures and inefficiencies.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC):Agovernment agency created
in 1934 to regulateAmerican radio stations and later expanded to regulate
television, wireless communications technologies, and other broadcast media.
Broadcast Media: Communications technologies, such as television and radio
that transmit information over airwaves.
Fairness Doctrine:An FCC regulation requiring broadcast media to present
several points of view to ensure balanced coverage. It was created in the late
1940s and eliminated in 1987.
Equal Time Provision:An FCC regulation requiring broadcast media to
provide equal airtime on any non-news programming to all candidates running
for an office.
Concentration: The trend toward single-company ownership of several media
sources in one area.
Cross Ownership: The trend towards single-company ownership of several
kinds of media outlets.
Media Conglomerates: Companies that control a large number of media
sources across several types of media outlets.
Mainstream Media: Media sources that predate the Internet, such as
newspapers, magazines, television, and radio.
Prime Time: Evening hours when television viewership is at its highest and
networks often schedule news programs.
News Cycle: The time between the release of information and its publications,
like the twenty four hours between issues of a daily newspaper.
Leak: The release of either classified or politically embarrassing information
by a government employee to a member of the press.
Press Conference:An event, at which a politician speaks to journalists and, in
most cases, answers their questions afterward.
On background or off the record: Comments a politician makes to the press on
the condition that they can be reported only if they are not attributed to that
politician. Shield Laws: Legislation, which exists in some states but not at the federal
level that gives reporters the right to refuse to name the sources of their
By-product-theory: The idea that manyAmericans acquire political
information unintentionally rather than by seeking it out.
Media effects: The influence of media coverage on average citizens’opinions
Filtering: The influence on public opinions and actions.
Slant: The imbalance in a story that covers one candidate or policy favorably
without providing similar coverage of the other side.
Priming: The influence on the public’s general impressions caused by positive
or negative coverage of a candidate or issue.
Framing: The influence on public opinion caused by the way a story is
presented or covered, including the details, explanations, and context offered
in the report.
Hostile Media Phenomenon: The idea that supporters of a candidate or issue
tend to feel that media coverage is biased against their position, regardless of
whether coverage is actually unfair.
Attack Journalism:A type of increasingly popular media coverage focused on
political scandals and controversies, which causes a negative public opinion of
Horse Race:Adescription of the type of election coverage that focuses more
on poll results and speculation about a likely winner than on substantive
differences between candidates.
Soft News: Media coverage that aims to entertain or shock, often through
sensationalized reporting or by focusing on a candidate or politician’s
Hard News: Media coverage focused on facts and important issues
surrounding a campaign.
II. Lecture(2/20/13)-The Media
A. Communication and Democracy
1. How people
a.Discover common interests and form groups
b. Articulate interests to government
c.Learn about candidates and policy proposals
2. How elected officials
a.Accomplish their policy goals
B. “Mass” Media
1. Why do we need it?
a.Audience is large, heterogeneous, and widely dispersed
C. Models of the Media in a Democracy 1. Watch dog: Monitor the government and alert the people if officials are
taking a step in the wrong direction(signaling when necessary)
2. Lap dog: Friendly and buddy-buddy relationship with government(never
3. Attack dog:Always hitting on the government(signaling all the time)
D. History of the Media in the U.S.
1. News in the colonial era
a.News coming from England, so it was delayed events
b. Very expensive subscription-elite only received news
2. Development of the Press
a.Penny Press: Made newspapers available to more of the population
b. Wire Service:An organization that gathers news and sells it
to other media outlets(Ex-Associated Press)
c.Yellow Journalism:Astyle of newspaper featuring sensationalized
stories, bold headlines, and
E. Rise of the Modern Media
1. More technology
a.Advent of broadcast media like radio, then television
2. More regulation
a.FCC – Created in 1934 to regulateAmerican radio stations, and
later expanded to regulate other broadcast media
b. Limits on ownership
d. Equal Time Provision
3. The Modern News Industry
a.What is “news”?
i. “What newsmakers promote as timely, important, or
interesting from which news organizations select, narrate,
and package into information formats and that people
b. Who owns the news?
i. Public ownership: Government owns the media channel
ii. Non-profit ventures
iii. Private companies: Organization for profit
4. Effects of Private Ownership
i. No government censorship
ii. Competition of quality within news, will be catered to the