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Chapter 11

Intro to US Gov & Pol [COMPLETE NOTES] Chapter 11 -- I 4.0ed this course

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University of Illinois
Political Science
PS 101

PS 101-Chapter 11 The Presidency I. Textbook o Constitutional authority(presidential): Powers derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president’s role in government o Statutory authority(presidential): Powers derived from laws enacted by Congress that add to the powers given to the president in the Constitution o Vesting clause:Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution, which states that “executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America,” making the president both the head of government and the head of state. o Head of government: One role of the president, through which he or she has authority over the executive branch o Head of state: One role of the president, through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically. o Recess appointment: When a person is chosen by the president to fill a position, such as an ambassadorship or the head of a department, while the Senate in not in session, thereby bypassing Senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent Senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of congressional term. o Executive orders: Proclamations made by the president that change government policy without congressional approval. o Fast-track authority: An expedited system for passing treaties under which support from a simple majority, rather than a two-thirds majority, is needed in both the House and Senate, and no amendments are allowed. o First-mover advantage: The president’s power to initiate treaty negotiations. Congress cannot initiate treaties and can only consider them once they have been negotiated. o Executive agreement:An agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government, which acts as a treaty but does not require Senate approval. o Two presidencies: The idea that presidents have more interest in and power over foreign policy issues compared to domestic policy issues. This asymmetry is created by the president’s greater influence over the making of foreign policy and the generally lower salience of foreign policy issues. o State of the Union:An annual speech in which the president addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and recommend policies. o Executive privilege: The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branch. o Presidential approval: The percentage of Americans who feel that the president is doing a good job in office. o Go Public:Apresident’s use of speeches and other public communications to appeal directly to citizens about issues the president would like the House and Senate to act on. o Executive Office of the President (EOP): The group of policy-related offices that serves as support staff to the president. o Cabinet: The group of fifteen executive department heads who implement the president’s agenda in their respective positions. o Power to persuade: The theory that a president’s ability to shape government policy depends more on his ability to convince members of Congress, bureaucrats, and citizens to do what he wants than it does on the formal powers conveyed to him by the Constitution. o Unilateral action (presidential):Any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and his staff without the explicit approval or consent of Congress. o Unitary Executive Order: The idea that the vesting clause of the Constitution gives the president the authority to issue orders and policy directives that cannot be undone by Congress. o Signing statement:Adocument issues by the president when signing a bill into law which explaining his interpretation of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of Congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented. o Impeachment:Anegative or checking power over the other branches that allows Congress to remove the president, vice president, or other “officers of the United States”(including federal judges) for abuses of power. II. Lecture(4/10/13) The Presidency A. Constitutional Foundations 1. What were the framers thinking? a. Concerned about executive power- didn’t want a “King” b. But theArticles of Confederation failed in part because of the lack of a strong national leader 1. In terms of relationship between the states 2. In terms of foreign policy 2. What did they decide? a. To vest executive power in a President, who is both head of government and head of state b. Charged with implementation of legislation 1. “he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed” B. Qualifications for Office 1. Must be at least 35 years old 2. AU.S.-born citizen 3. Have lived in the U.S. for minimum of 14 years C. Nature of Presidential Power 1. Constitutional authority
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