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Chapter 1

PSYC 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Skeptical Movement, Emic And Etic, Human Behavior


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Megan Davis
Chapter
1

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Chapter One- Psychology and Scientific Thinking
Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition))
Topics Covered:
Psychology and Levels of Analysis
What Makes Psychology Distinctive—and Fascinating
Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense
Psychology as a Science
Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science
Recognizing That We Might Be Wrong
Scientific Skepticism
The Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking
What is psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior.
Psychological scientists study mind, brain, and behavior.
Psychology spans many levels of analysis
These levels go from biological influences to social influences.
The lower levels of analysis are more associated with the brain, while the
higher levels of analysis are more associated with the mind.
Mind vs Brain
The mind is the brain in action
The Levels of Psychological Analysis
Molecular Level
Neurochemical Level
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Neurological/ Physiological Level
Mental Level
Behavioral Level
Social Level
What makes psychology challenging and fascinating?
All the challenges of psychology are what make psychology such a fascinating field of
study.
There are 5 key reasons why psychology is a fascinating discipline(a(1),
b(2),c(3),d(4),e(5)).
Human behavior is unpredictable.
Why?
All behaviors are multiply determined(produced by many factors).
All behavior roots from an agglomeration of various
factors.
Psychological influences are almost always interdependent of one another.
How is this a challenge?
It is hard to identify what factor or factors are operating.
Individual differences( Thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior)
Why?
It is hard to formulate explanations of behavior that can be applied
to everyone.
We influence one another’s behavior.
Reciprocal Determinism
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We mutually influence each other’s behavior.
This makes it hard to determine what is causing what.
One’s behavior is often shaped by his/her culture.
Like our individual differences, our cultural differences limit the extent to
which generalizations can be made about human nature.
Social scientists who focus on cross-cultural psychology use etic and emic
approaches to attain a better understanding of the influence of culture on
human behavior.
Etic Approach
Study a culture from the perspective of an outsider
Emic Approach
Study culture from the perspective of a native
It is of the utmost importance that one develops a good understanding of these
challenges.
Doing so will help us to better predict and understand behavior.
Why can’t we always trust our common sense?
Common Sense
An individual’s assumptions about the world
We use common sense very often make assessments of others and their behavior.
Our intuitive understanding of the world around us is often faulty.
We often fall victim to naive realism
Naive Realism
What is it?
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